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- ItemAccess to Finance for Inclusive Agri-Business Development(2012-06-17) Barclay O’BrienThis material provides an overview of the financial landscape and access to finance for inclusive businesses (IBs) and small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Bangladesh. The Business Innovation Facility (BIF) Bangladesh, a UKaid-funded project, aims to support IBs with profitable core business activities benefiting the poor and disadvantaged. The material discusses the role of SMEs and agriculture in poverty reduction and economic growth, highlighting the challenges and opportunities in accessing finance. It examines the economic environment, the contributions of different sectors to GDP, and the overlap between agriculture and SMEs. Access to finance is crucial for empowering people and protecting them against economic shocks, and the material explores the importance of financial inclusion. It discusses the role of the government, banks, non-bank financial institutions, microfinance institutions (MFIs), and other finance providers in lending to SMEs and agriculture. The products and services offered by banks, MFIs, equity providers, and other finance providers are also discussed. The material provides insights into the issues faced by finance providers and suggests recommendations for clients to improve their credit readiness. It emphasizes the need for coordination between finance providers and third-party assistance to support potential clients. Overall, the material highlights the importance of enhancing access to finance for SMEs and agriculture to promote inclusive growth in Bangladesh.
- ItemClimate Resilient Soil Fertility Management Strategy for Rice Production in Submergence Prone Areas in Northern Ghana.(2017-10-23) Sampson Agyin-Birikorang; S.W. Dogbe; Cisse BoubakaryFrequent flooding occurring in some parts of northern Ghana has negatively affected lowland rainfed rice production. Previous efforts to mitigate the problem focused mainly on varietal improvement. However, there is the need to find a technological fit between genotypes, and nutrient management strategies to ensure sustainable production. Adaptive trials were established in seven communities in northern Ghana to evaluate the effectiveness of the urea deep placement (UDP) technology in improving productivity in submergence prone areas using the submergence-tolerant rive varieties, NERICA L-19 and NERICA L-49 as test varieties. In each trial, the effectiveness of the UDP technology was compared with the microdosing (MD) technology and the locally recommended fertilizer management (LRP). Preliminary results across all seven locations showed that greatest yields and N uptake were observed from the UDP treatment, followed by the MD and the LRP treatments in that order, irrespective of rice variety used. The average grain yield obtained from the UDP treatment was 4 tons/ha and 4.2 tons/ha for the NERICA L-19 and L-49, respectively; those of the MD treatment were 3.1 tons/ha and 3.4 tons/ha; and those of the LRP treatment were 2.4 tons/ha and 2.6 tons/ha for the NERICA L-19 and L-49 respectively. Similarly, average N uptake across all seven locations showed ~65% N recovery from the UDP treatments ~44% for the MD treatment, and ~ 30% for the LRP treatment. Thus, the preliminary results suggest that the UDP technology could be an appropriate soil fertility management technology for submergence-prone areas, using submergence tolerance rice varieties. However, there is a need to repeat this trial for further investigations to validate the results and make appropriate recommendations.
- ItemClimate Smart Fertilizer Management in Rice Cultivation under Stress Prone Areas for Food Security and Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions(2018-10) Yam Kanta Gaihre; Upendra Singh; Myint Aung; Bandhu Raj Baral; Mohammad HasnainMore than 50% of applied nitrogen is not utilized by crops, posing huge economical costs and environmental concerns. Fertilizer management is more challenging for rice cultivation in stress-prone environments subject to drought, submergence, and salinity. Farmers in these areas have poor control over water and fertilizer application. For conventional broadcast application of nitrogen, farmers are often unable or unwilling to apply the follow-on splits. Fertilizer deep placement (FDP) could be a better alternative since it could be done before or at planting, ensures higher use efficiency due to reduction of losses (runoff and ammonia volatilization). FDP eliminates the need for additional split applications of urea and ensures higher yields. While FPD has proven its multiple benefits under favorable irrigated rice cultivation, but its effects under stress prone environments are still lacking. Multi-location experiments were conducted under drought, submergence and saline conditions in Bangladesh, Nepal and Myanmar to determine the effects FDP vs broadcast prilled urea (PU) on rice yields, nitrogen use efficiency and economic returns. Effects on nitrogen losses including floodwater ammonium, ammonia volatilization and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions were measured in on-station trials in Bangladesh. Across the countries and stress environments, FDP increased grain yields and nitrogen use efficiency significantly compared to broadcast PU. Under drought condition, FDP increased grain yields by 12% (Bangladesh) to 21% (Nepal) compared to broadcast PU. Similarly, under saline condition, yield increment ranged from 10% (Bangladesh) to 40% (Myanmar) while saving urea fertilizer by up to 50%. Similar yield benefits and fertilizer savings were observed under submerged condition in Bangladesh and Myanmar. FDP significantly reduced nitrogen losses compared to broadcast PU. Broadcast PU resulted in higher amounts of ammonium in floodwater and ammonia volatilization, both of which were negligible in FDP treatments. Moreover, FDP reduced nitrous oxide emissions by 70% as compared to broadcast PU. These results confirm that FDP is equally effective if not more under stress environments than under favorable environment. FDP, in addition to saving N fertilizer and increasing crop productivity, reduces N losses as ammonia volatilization and greenhouse gas N2O emissions, could be considered a climate smart fertilizer management practice.
- ItemDeterminants Of Rice Marketed Surplus In Togo: A Heckman Two-Stage Selection Approach(2013) Latha Nagarajan; Aliou Diagne; Naseem Anwar; Serge AdjognonThis study examines the dynamics of rice consumption and production in Togo, a country where rice ranks third in consumption after maize and sorghum, constituting 3% of the total GDP. Despite a 17.40% growth in rice production from 2005 to 2008, consumption has outpaced domestic production, resulting in significant imports costing $7.5 million annually. The inefficiency of agricultural production efforts without a robust marketing system is highlighted. The research employs the Heckman 2 Stage Selection Model to analyze the major determinants of rice marketed surplus in Togo, with a particular focus on the impact of transaction costs. Data from the Consumer Preferences Survey (2010) conducted by the AfricaRice Center, involving 253 randomly selected rice producer households from five main regions, informs the analysis. The two-stage model involves a probit estimation to determine market participation factors and an Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) estimation to analyze marketed surplus. Results indicate a 76% market participation rate and an average marketed surplus of 2 tons. Factors such as household characteristics (schooling, gender, age, family size), market-related characteristics (paddy production, farmer-trader status, paddy price), and social network participation influence market outcomes. Region-specific effects and the Inverse Mill Ratio are also considered. The findings suggest that government interventions in the Maritimes and Kara regions have positively impacted market participation. However, considerable imperfections in the rice market chain, compounded by transaction costs, hinder efficient price transmission to farmers. The study underscores the importance of addressing market imperfections alongside efforts to boost rice production. The government and development agencies are urged to target these issues to enhance the overall effectiveness of interventions.
- ItemDoes Blanket Fertilizer Recommendation Still Work? a Case Study of Maize Production in Northern Ghana.(2019) Salamatu Agmalooyong Nuhu; Abdul-Rahman A. Fuseini; Haruna W. Dauda; Job Fugice; Wendie D. Bible; Celia Sylvester; Andrew J. Medford ; Upendra Singh; Sampson Agyin-BirikorangFarmers in northern Ghana continue to use blanket fertilizer recommendations based on soil tests and experiments that are several decades old. Consequently, maize yields obtained by smallholder farmers are small fractions (< 40%) of potential yields, despite increases in the use of NPK fertilizers. To achieve sustainable growth in productivity, it is critical to consider the spatial soil fertility variability in order to re-design soil fertility recommendations. We collected over 15000 georeferenced soil samples across the entire northern region of Ghana to identify the limiting nutrients, and to develop soil fertility maps to aid site- and crop-specific fertilizer recommendations. The Grid/Management Zone Hybrid Soil Sampling Method was used to collect the soil samples. Within each community, fields were subdivided into an arrangement of cells of 2-4 km apart. Within each cell, management zones are established using a variety of resources and/or datasets. To validate soil analytical results, plant tissues samples were collected for analysis. The combined results of the soil and plant tissue analyses show that across the entire region, the soils are generally acid to slightly acidic with very few isolated cases where the soil pH is near neutral. Large portions are deficient in P (< 10 mg kg-1), S (< 6 mg kg-1), zinc (< 1 mg kg-1), B (< 1 mg kg-1) and K (< 80 mg kg-1). Therefore, to increase productivity, farmers need to supply these limiting essential plant nutrients to crops, and not limit themselves to the blanket application of only NPK fertilizers. To make site-specific fertilizer recommendations, nutrient omission trials are needed to identify quantities of each limiting nutrient to apply for sustainable increases in productivity and farm incomes.
- ItemEconomic Rationale for Fertilizer Quality Regulations(2018) Joshua ArigaThis presentation, delivered by Dr. Joshua Ariga at the International Workshop on Developing Private Sector Agro-Input Markets, discusses the economic rationale for implementing fertilizer quality regulations in Africa. Dr. Ariga represents the Partnership for Enabling Market Environments for Fertilizer in Africa (PEMEFA), a consortium of five partner organizations dedicated to transforming African agriculture by improving smallholder farmers' access to and use of fertilizers. The presentation explores the challenges in the fertilizer value chain, the impact of poor fertilizer quality, and recommendations for regulatory reforms to enhance fertilizer quality control and ensure the economic viability of the sector.
- ItemEffects of Micronutrient on Productivity and Profitability of Rice under Three Growing Environments in Tanzania(2018) K. Senthilkumar; F.S. Sillo; B.J. Tesha; I. Dieng; J. Rodenburg; K. Saito; E. Vandamme; Christian O. Dimkpa; Wendt John; Bindraban, Prem S.Rice production in sub-Saharan Africa is often limited by nutrient deficiencies, necessitating the application of micronutrients along with NPK fertilizers to enhance and sustain yields. This study aimed to compare the efficiency and effectiveness of foliar and soil-applied micronutrients in rice production and analyze their cost-effectiveness. Thirty on-farm trials were conducted in three rice-growing conditions: irrigated lowland, rainfed lowland, and upland. Multiple treatments were applied, including five foliar nutrient products and one soil application of micronutrients per trial, under two blocks of NPK and no NPK. The results revealed significant yield increases with the application of micronutrients in rainfed and irrigated lowlands, but the effectiveness in upland conditions remained unclear. Soil application of micronutrients showed higher yield and economic benefits than foliar application, albeit at higher application rates. Therefore, in Tanzania's rainfed and irrigated lowland conditions, soil and foliar application of micronutrients can be recommended, but further studies are required for confirmation. The study also highlighted the variability in micronutrients' efficiency and cost benefits across different rice growing conditions. The findings emphasize the importance of considering site-specific factors and the choice of application method for optimizing rice production in Tanzania.
- ItemEfforts to Promote Quality Seed Supply in Legume Crops: Models in Practice in Tanzania(2017-02-28) Latha Nagarajan; V. Rweyendela; R. JonesThis document presents the key discussions and findings from a February 28, 2017, seminar on improving access to quality seed. The conference brought together experts and practitioners in seed systems and aimed to address the challenges faced by smallholder farmers in accessing quality seed in developing countries. The speakers discussed various topics, including the importance of official seed quality controls, the concept of Quality Declared Seed (QDS), and the potential of QDS to fill the gap between formal and informal seed systems. The first part of the document highlights the role of seed quality controls in addressing farmers' concerns about seed quality and ensuring a level playing field for seed producers. It emphasizes the need to avoid fake seeds in the market and discusses seed certification and testing processes as mechanisms to guarantee seed quality. The second part focuses on the Quality Declared Seed (QDS) concept and its potential to improve access to quality seed, particularly for crops and varieties not served by formal seed companies. The speakers present the case of Uganda, where QDS has been implemented successfully, enabling farmer groups to produce and market quality-assured seed. The benefits of QDS, such as increased availability of quality seed and reduced reliance on low-quality seed from the local market, are highlighted. The third part of the document explores efforts to promote quality seed supply in legume crops in Tanzania. It discusses the context of legume crops in the country and the importance of these crops for food security and income generation. The speakers present models and initiatives implemented in Tanzania to improve access to quality legume seeds, considering the diverse formal, semi-formal, and informal seed systems.
- ItemEvaluation of Agronomic Effectiveness of Activated Phosphate Rock(2016-11-07) Sampson Agyin-Birikorang; Upendra Singh; Job Fugice; Wendie D. Bible; Joaquin Sanabria; V. HenryUnlike water soluble phosphorus (P) fertilizers, most phosphate rocks (PRs) are non-reactive in agricultural soils, particularly in neutral to alkaline soils. One innovative and practical approach to enhancing PR agronomic efficiency is “activation” of the PRs with water soluble P (WSP) fertilizers. In greenhouse studies unreactive PR was activated with a modest amount of WSP at a ratio 20% WSP to 80% PR (4:1 PR/WSP ratio = “0.2 Activation”) and evaluated on three soils with varying acidity/alkalinity level (Hiwassee loam – 5.49, Greenville loam – 6.80, and Sumter – 7.57). Rice and soybeans were used as test crops during the spring/summer seasons, and wheat during the winter season. P uptake was determined at three growth stages (4 weeks after planting, anthesis, and grain filling). At maturity, the crops were harvested to determine grain and biomass yields, grain and straw P contents, and to calculate the relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE) of the P sources. Irrespective of the soil, crop and planting season, significant improvement in the agronomic effectiveness of the “activated” PR was observed, with an average RAE value greater than 80%. The combined results suggests that, combination of a modest amount of WSP with PR could be a cost effective means of enhancing P availability in PRs without the soil pH constraint on the agronomic effectiveness of PRs. Further studies will evaluate the effectiveness of the “activated” PRs under field conditions.
- ItemFertilizer Cost Chain Analysis(2018-10-16) Grace ChilandeThis document provides an overview of the major changes occurring in the fertilizer markets of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) with a specific focus on Kenya. The shift from commodity purchasing to value chain development is explored, highlighting the evolving roles of distribution channel players and the increasing integration by manufacturers and traders. The importance of balanced nutrition for productivity enhancement and the detrimental effects of soil acidity are recognized. Additionally, governments' growing awareness of mounting food security issues is discussed. The country overview section focuses on Kenya's fertilizer market, highlighting key statistics such as the subsidized market and the dominance of maize and tea crops. The presence of fertilizer blenders, the historical use of certain products like DAP, issues related to compound fertilizers' adulteration, and limited institutional capacity regarding balanced nutrition and product options are outlined. Farmers' reluctance to change and the significance of a reasonable distribution network are also addressed. The publication delves into the fertilizer value chain, encompassing manufacturing, logistics, and margins. The Port of Mombasa is highlighted as a crucial hub, emphasizing its expansion and the estimated discharge rates for fertilizers. The port operations, customs clearance, warehousing, and transportation costs are discussed. Furthermore, the structure of Kenya's fertilizer market, including the national government's procurement and distribution model, commodity-based input-credit-output models, and independent importers, wholesalers, and retailers, is examined. The document concludes by presenting a comparison of retail fertilizer prices in Kenya and global prices, emphasizing the logistics challenges faced in the country. The impact of freight costs, demurrage fees, and port congestion on fertilizer prices is highlighted. The publication raises the question of how to lower fertilizer prices and invites further exploration into potential solutions.
- ItemImpacts of Urea Deep Placement with Intermittent Irrigation on Nitrous Oxide and Nitric Oxide Emissions and Nitrogen Use Efficiency from Lowland Rice Cultivation(2018-10) S. M. Mofijul Islam; Yam Kanta Gaihre; Upendra Singh; Jatish Chandra Biswas; Md Nayeem Ahmed; Joaquin Sanabria; Bjoern Ole Sander; Mohammad SalequeUrea deep placement (UDP) and alternate wetting and drying (AWD) irrigation method are two promising rice production technologies. However, studies on the impacts of UDP under AWD irrigation on nitrous oxide (N2O) nitric oxide (NO) emissions are still limited. We investigated the effects of UDP on N2O and NO emissions, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and rice yields compared with conventional broadcast application of prilled urea (PU) under AWD irrigation. Emissions were measured from three fertilizer treatments — no N, UDP and PU using an automated gas sampling and analysis system continuously for two consecutive Boro (dry) rice seasons in Bangladesh. For UDP, urea briquettes were placed in 7-10 cm below soil surface between four hills of rice at each alternate row after ten days of transplanting, while PU was applied as broadcast in three equal splits. Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications and emissions were measured at every three-hour interval. N2O emissions were irregular and event specific. Fertilizer induced emission peaks were observed after broadcast application of prilled urea (PU), but they were not observed in UDP. However, emissions peaks during dry period were more prominent in UDP compared to PU. Nevertheless, seasonal cumulative N2O emissions were similar between UDP and PU treatments. Across the season, UDP and PU showed yield-scaled N2O emission 96.3 and 88.7 g t–1 grain and emission factors were 0.49 and 0.23%, respectively. In contrast to N2O emission, NO fluxes were small and not affected by either fertilizer or water management. Across the season, UDP significantly increased rice yield, agronomic use efficiency and recovery efficiency of N by 29%, 109% and 167%, respectively compared to broadcast PU. Since UDP significantly increased grain yield and NUE compared to broadcast PU, and maintained similar emissions of N2O with PU, UDP could be equally effective under AWD irrigation as with continuous flooding condition. Therefore, UDP might be considered an eco-friendly technology for improving rice yields and reducing GHG emissions, particularly N2O emissions in both water regimes.
- ItemImplementation of the Abuja Declaration on Fertilizers for an African Green Revolution(2009-06-16) Maria WanzalaThis presentation discusses the implementation of the Abuja Declaration on Fertilizers for an African Green Revolution, focusing on the efforts to address the fertilizer crisis in Africa. The report presents an overview of the progress made at the regional and country levels, particularly in areas like harmonization of legislation, regional procurement, fertilizer production, and intra-regional trade. It also highlights the challenges faced and provides recommendations for future actions, including the need for accurate data on fertilizer consumption, improved regulation, and the establishment of the African Fertilizer Financing Mechanism (AFFM). The report emphasizes the importance of promoting sustainable and market-friendly fertilizer practices to enhance agricultural productivity in Africa.
- ItemInfluence of Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen on Rice Grain Yields and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in the Non-Calcareous Soils of Bangladesh(2018) M.R. Islam ; H. Akter; M.A. Ali; Yam Kanta Gaihre; A.A. Mahmud; M.M.H. TalukderIncreasing use of nitrogen fertilizers along with its inappropriate application method resulting in higher N losses and low N use efficiency (NUE), is an important concern to sustain soil fertility and crop productivity in Bangladesh. Urea Deep Placement (UDP) technology, which reduces fertilizer use, increase NUE and crop productivity, is a proven technology in lowland rice cultivation. Moreover, use of organic fertilizer combined with chemical fertilizer helps to increase soil organic matter and increase crop yield. Therefore, cropping pattern-based field experiments were conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural University farm to determine the effects of different forms of nitrogen fertilizer in combination with organic manures on rice yield and NUE in Non-Calcareous soils (AEZ 9). Eight fertilizer treatments including broadcast urea, deep placement of granular urea and urea briquette and combined use of organic manure with broadcast urea were laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Results show that deep placement either urea or urea briquette increased grain yields and NUE significantly compared to broadcast PU. Moreover, addition of organic manure with broadcasted urea significantly increased both grain and straw yields compared to without organic manure. No significant grain yields difference observed among the deep placement and organic manure with broadcasted urea treated plot, but addition of organic manure improves and sustains the physical, chemical and biological functioning of soil. The NUE among the fertilizer treatments decreased with increasing N rates. The highest NUE observed at deep placed treatment (65-72%), which was significantly higher than broadcast PU (28-45%), suggesting an effective technology to attain food and environmental security.
- ItemInnovative Fertilization and Application Technologies to Increase Yield and Nutritional Value of Crops Under Field and Farm Conditions in Africa(2021-11-09) Bindraban, Prem S.The African continent is in dire need of Innovative Fertilizers and Application Technologies (IFAT) with targeted combinations of macro and micronutrients to meet site and crop specific needs to increase crop yield and meet growing food demand. IFAT will also increase the nutritional content of crop produced to fight hidden hunger, such as by reducing phytate content and simultaneously increasing zinc and iron content that improves their bio-availability to humans. Moreover, IFAT improves plant health to mitigate the impact of changing climate and enhance the resilience of the production system. Obviously, IFAT are not isolated technical solutions but must be embedded in societal, political, industrial systems that calls for a transformation of the food and fertilizer sector to reach impact at scale. Hence, widespread adoption must be driven by evidence-based agro-technical and socio-economic perspectives embedded in multi-stakeholder processes to create conducive conditions for adoption. This systematic research and implementation approach will be highlighted in the presentation. It will be illustrated by experiences from development programs implemented by the Research and Development Organization IFDC, and more specifically with an on-going program on “Fertilizer Research and Responsible Implementation” in Ghana.
- ItemInternational Women’s Day 2022: Breaking Biases in Science and Agriculture(2022) Genga Quintar; Ngunjiri MercyIn commemoration of International Women's Day 2022, Q. Genga and M. Ngunjiri delivered a thought-provoking presentation that addressed the critical issue of gender biases within the fields of science and agriculture. The event served as a platform to shed light on the unique challenges and contributions of women in these sectors and the collective efforts needed to break down persistent biases.
- ItemMaking Fertilizer Blends in Small Batches(2021) Wendt John; Genga Quintar; Ngunjiri MercyIn this informative training video, Wendt, Genga, and Ngunjiri guide viewers through the process of creating customized fertilizer blends in small batches, catering specifically to trials and demonstrations. The video offers valuable insights and practical knowledge for those involved in agriculture, research, or education. The video begins by introducing the concept of fertilizer blending and highlights its significance in optimizing crop nutrient management. It underscores the importance of tailored nutrient formulations to meet specific agricultural goals, such as enhancing crop yield, improving soil fertility, or addressing nutrient deficiencies. Throughout the presentation, the presentors walk viewers through a step-by-step process, from selecting the raw materials and understanding nutrient content to utilizing blending equipment effectively. Clear and concise instructions are provided, ensuring that viewers gain a thorough understanding of the blending procedure.
- ItemMicronutrients for Better Yields(2017) Breure Mirjam; Bindraban, Prem S.; Hoffland Ellis; Kempen BasTo feed the growing population in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA), yield levels currently attained in small-holder farming systems need to increase. In combination with other agronomic practices, the use of mineral fertilisers is indispensable for closing yield gaps. In SSA, fertiliser recommendations are often national or regional blanket recommendations, that do not take into account heterogeneity in soil fertility, resource availability, agro-ecological zones and/or crops. Furthermore, blanket fertiliser recommendations often only include N, P and K, whereas other secondary and micronutrients can also be yield-limiting. Of the micronutrients, Zn and B are expected to be the main yield-limiting nutrients in SSA soils. Zinc is not only essential for plant growth, but also for human health. A large part of the SSA population is estimated to be Zn deficient, which can partly be attributed to low soil Zn availability and consequently low Zn concentrations in crops that grow on them. The main objective of this thesis is to develop and evaluate models for predicting soil nutrient availability and to increase the understanding of the interactive effect of nutrient availability on yields and nutritional quality in SSA. The focus is on availability of macronutrients N, P and K as well as micronutrients Zn and B.
- ItemModeling Spatial Variability across Farms to Estimate the Error in Experiments Replicated across Numerous Farms(2017) Joaquin Sanabria ; Oscar Nduwimana; Wendt JohnBalanced crop nutrition and soil fertility research toward ensuring food security for Subsaharan Africa requires conduction of experiments in small-holder farms. These experiments can be intrusive and compete for the land used by producers to support their families and derive income. The burden for the farmers can be reduced conducting experiments in which the set of treatments is applied only once in each of numerous farms located across entire regions. The wide spatial variability, mainly due to soil characteristics, is reduced grouping farms with the use of a combination of multivariate factor and cluster analysis, and the error term for testing hypotheses about treatments is obtained from modeling the spatial variability across farms within each cluster. The effect of three fertilization treatments, three farm clusters and the interaction of treatment*cluster on bean yields in Burundi were tested with a Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLIMMIX), the R side covariance error structure was modeled with a Spatial Exponential structure along the latitude and altitude coordinates. Running the experiments in many farms covering entire regions enhances the scope of the research, clustering the farms allows to develop specific fertilization recommendations for the specific environmental characteristics of each cluster, modeling the covariance error structure across farms results in an analysis of variance (ANOVA) model of higher fitness and power than an ANOVA model that assumes error term independence across farms. The Akaike Information Criteria were 245.21 and 528.85, and the error variances were 0.0937 and 0.1286 for the ANOVA models with spatial exponential covariance error structure and with assumed error independence respectively. A significant interaction Treatment*Cluster is critical to make specific fertilization recommendations to farm clusters, the ANOVA model including the error covariance modeling was able to detect such a significance while the ANOVA model assuming independence of errors failed to detect the interaction significance.
- ItemMovement and Retention of NH4-N in Wetland Rice Soils as Affected by Urea Application Methods(2020) IA Siddique; AA Mahmud; M Hossain; Md. Rafiqul Islam; Yam Kanta GaihreThis document presents a study on the movement and retention of ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) in wetland rice soils, focusing on the impact of different urea application methods. The research was conducted by Imran Ahammad Siddique and his colleagues from the Department of Soil Science at Bangladesh Agricultural University and the International Fertilizer Development Center. The significance of the study lies in the fact that rice is a major crop in Bangladesh, and understanding the behavior of NH4-N in the soil is crucial for optimizing fertilizer application and increasing nitrogen use efficiency. The study investigated the effects of urea deep placement (UDP) and broadcast application methods on NH4-N movement and retention in wetland rice soils. UDP involves placing urea deep into the soil, concentrating NH4-N in the anaerobic layer, and reducing its movement to the soil surface or floodwater. The results showed that deep placement of urea increased NH4-N retention in the soil for a longer period compared to broadcast methods, potentially reducing the need for multiple split applications. Additionally, it was found that UDP could improve nitrogen use efficiency and increase rice production. The characteristics of submerged soil were also examined, including the depletion of oxygen, reduction of certain ions, limited gas exchange, and changes in soil pH. Understanding the nitrogen transformation processes in flooded soils is essential due to the solubility and potential toxicity of inorganic nitrogen. The study aimed to investigate the movement and retention of NH4-N during the rice-growing season using different application methods and nitrogen rates. Pore water samples were collected from UDP and broadcast plots at various depths and time points. The results demonstrated that NH4-N concentration decreased gradually over time, and its horizontal movement was significant up to 10 cm from the placement point. The diffusion area near the rice root zone showed the highest NH4-N concentration, while UDP retained higher NH4-N levels in the soil than broadcast urea.
- ItemMultivariate and Non-Parametric Methods for Identification of Factors That Decide the Adoption of Fertilizer Use by Rwandan Farmers.(2012-10-23) Joaquin Sanabria; Joshua Ariga; Deborah Hellums; Martin DrevonThe quantity of fertilizer used is a good indicator of the degree of prosperity in any country. Prior to 2008, the mean rate of fertilizer use in Rwanda was 4 kg ha-1, lower than the mean for sub-Saharan Africa of 11 kg ha-1, which is the world region with the lowest fertilizer use. In 2008 the Rwandan government, with the assistance of international aid agencies, started programs with the main objective of increasing the use of fertilizers in the diverse crops grown in the country. As part of a project sponsored by USAID, a survey was developed to identify major factors that affect the farmer’s decision of starting fertilizer use. The random sampling survey was designed to collect demographic, socioeconomic, and crop management practices data from 2022 small scale farm households located throughout the country. Principal Factor Analysis was employed to identify fertilizer adoption factors. Each of the factors selected is made up by a series of explanatory variables. Then the explanatory variables were tested comparing the Cumulative Empirical Distribution Functions (CEDF) or the Empirical Distribution Functions (EDF) of fertilizer users against no-fertilizer users. The hypothesis tests for the comparison of CEDF’s and EDF’s from the two groups of farmers were carried out with the non-parametric Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The ten most influential factors, in order of importance,are shown below. Factor Name of Factor 1 Percent Maize Sales 2 Percent Vegetable sales 3 Farming Area 4 Interest on Increasing maize and vegetable Production 5 Interest on Getting Credit for maize and vegetable 6 Perception of fertilization effect on Maize and Vegetables 7 Interest on Increasing Potato Production 8 Fund Sources 9 Understanding fertilizer importance 10 Perception of Conditions Limiting Access to Fertilizers