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    Cotton Fertilizer in West Africa
    (2022-11-10) Patrice Annequin
    This study examines the rapid expansion of the fertilizer market in West Africa, focusing on key metrics related to consumption, production, and utilization for cotton cultivation in eight countries. The fertilizer market has experienced substantial growth, with consumption doubling since 2010. However, a crisis in 2022 has resulted in a significant shortage of fertilizer in the region. The paper explores the dynamics of cotton production in Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, and other West African countries, highlighting the challenges and variations in social contexts. The analysis includes forecasts for cotton acreage and production, with emphasis on fertilizer consumption patterns. The study also delves into the distribution of fertilizer use across countries, revealing that the top four nations account for 85% of total consumption. Additionally, the research explores the fertilizer consumption per country for cotton production, detailing the specific NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium) grades used. The paper concludes with an investigation into the strategies employed for fertilizer procurement and distribution in West African countries, particularly during crisis times. The study suggests improvements in procurement processes, trade finance, subsidy programs, and nutrient use efficiency to enhance the overall fertilizer market in the region.
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    Determinants of Rice Marketed Surplus in Togo: A Heckman Two-Stage Selection Approach
    (2013) Latha Nagarajan; Aliou Diagne; Naseem Anwar; Serge Adjognon
    This study examines the dynamics of rice consumption and production in Togo, a country where rice ranks third in consumption after maize and sorghum, constituting 3% of the total GDP. Despite a 17.40% growth in rice production from 2005 to 2008, consumption has outpaced domestic production, resulting in significant imports costing $7.5 million annually. The inefficiency of agricultural production efforts without a robust marketing system is highlighted. The research employs the Heckman 2 Stage Selection Model to analyze the major determinants of rice marketed surplus in Togo, with a particular focus on the impact of transaction costs. Data from the Consumer Preferences Survey (2010) conducted by the AfricaRice Center, involving 253 randomly selected rice producer households from five main regions, informs the analysis. The two-stage model involves a probit estimation to determine market participation factors and an Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) estimation to analyze marketed surplus. Results indicate a 76% market participation rate and an average marketed surplus of 2 tons. Factors such as household characteristics (schooling, gender, age, family size), market-related characteristics (paddy production, farmer-trader status, paddy price), and social network participation influence market outcomes. Region-specific effects and the Inverse Mill Ratio are also considered. The findings suggest that government interventions in the Maritimes and Kara regions have positively impacted market participation. However, considerable imperfections in the rice market chain, compounded by transaction costs, hinder efficient price transmission to farmers. The study underscores the importance of addressing market imperfections alongside efforts to boost rice production. The government and development agencies are urged to target these issues to enhance the overall effectiveness of interventions.
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    The Determinants of Private Agricultural R&D: Evidence from India
    (2023) Anwar Naseem; Latha Nagarajan; Carl E. Pray
    Over the past three decades, India's agricultural input industries have undergone significant changes. Private agribusiness R&D has experienced substantial growth, with the state-owned firms from the Green Revolution era either stagnating or declining. Indian corporations, once protected from foreign competition, are now exporting agricultural tractors and pesticides, while foreign multinational corporations are increasing their presence in the seed, pesticide, and machinery sectors. This transformation has been driven by factors such as strong demand for inputs, changes in policy, and advancements in technology. This paper empirically examines government policies, technology, institutions, and R&D investments contributing to this transformation. It explores the dynamic relationship between public and private research, the impact of public sector research on the private sector, and the effects of various exogenous factors on private R&D in India's agricultural input industry.
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    Implementation of the Abuja Declaration on Fertilizers for an African Green Revolution
    (2009-06-16) Maria Wanzala
    This presentation discusses the implementation of the Abuja Declaration on Fertilizers for an African Green Revolution, focusing on the efforts to address the fertilizer crisis in Africa. The report presents an overview of the progress made at the regional and country levels, particularly in areas like harmonization of legislation, regional procurement, fertilizer production, and intra-regional trade. It also highlights the challenges faced and provides recommendations for future actions, including the need for accurate data on fertilizer consumption, improved regulation, and the establishment of the African Fertilizer Financing Mechanism (AFFM). The report emphasizes the importance of promoting sustainable and market-friendly fertilizer practices to enhance agricultural productivity in Africa.
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    Yield and Biofortification of Spinach and Rice using Seed‐Core Zinc Technology
    (2011) Upendra Singh; Taylor Pursell; Joaquin Sanabria; Deborah Hellums
    Zinc deficiency in staple foods, particularly cereal grains, poses a global issue, affecting both developing and developed regions. This study focuses on addressing zinc malnutrition and deficiency diseases by exploring agronomic biofortification through the use of zinc-enriched fertilizers and common crop varieties. The research demonstrates the potential for zinc core fertilizers to significantly increase zinc concentrations in plant tissues, enhancing nutrient uptake and crop yield. Preliminary results from spinach and rice experiments indicate the effectiveness of this approach. The study suggests that agronomic biofortification with zinc-core fertilizers can be a practical and cost-effective strategy to combat zinc deficiency and improve human nutrition in various regions.