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- ItemSome Liquid and Bulk Blending Fertilizer Facilities Now in Existence(1963-09) Achorn, Frank P.The establishment of liquid and bulk-blending fertilizer plants has increased significantly over the past decade. These plants, with capacities ranging from 2,000 to 5,000 tons of fertilizer per year, offer low investment and operating costs, making them attractive to nitrogen, P2O5, and K2O producers. This presentation provides a general discussion of the equipment used in manufacturing liquid and bulk-blended fertilizers, focusing on plants currently in use. Liquid fertilizer plants can be classified as liquid hot-mix or liquid cold-mix plants. Liquid hot-mix plants neutralize phosphoric acid with aqua ammonia or anhydrous ammonia, generating chemical heat. Liquid cold-mix plants mix high-phosphate liquid base solutions with urea-ammonium nitrate and potash. The presentation describes the equipment and processes involved in these types of plants. Bulk blending plants, which have gained popularity in the Midwest and other regions, involve dry-mixing solid raw materials to create customized mixtures with different nutrient contents. The raw materials are weighed, mixed, and conveyed to bulk trucks or bagging machines. The various types of mixers used in bulk blending plants, such as rotary mixers, mixing screw conveyors, ribbon mixers, and gravity-flow mixers, are discussed. The presentation also touches on materials handling systems, weighing devices, and different mixing techniques used in these fertilizer manufacturing facilities. While other types of liquid plants and blending systems are available, the focus is on the plants currently in general use.
- ItemRecent Developments in Granulation I(1965-11) Achorn, Frank P.; Lewis, J.S. Jr.This document provides an overview of recent advancements in granulation technology, specifically focusing on granulation plants and their conversion processes. The granulation industry has witnessed an increase in the number of plants as companies previously producing pulverized mixtures have switched to batch granulation methods. This transition involves modifying batch mixers, installing ammonia and acid distributors, and utilizing rotary coolers for product cooling. Producers with medium-sized granulation plants have adopted pre neutralizers and scrubbers to enhance their production capabilities, leading to the manufacturing of diammonium phosphate granules and higher annual production volumes. The shift towards complete-grade handling stations has been observed among these companies. Additionally, some producers have transformed their batch ammoniators into continuous ammoniator-granulators to meet higher production demands. Various strategies have been employed to improve the efficiency and performance of granulation equipment. Operators have experimented with different materials for sparger pipes, with stainless steel and Hastelloy being preferred due to their longer lifespan and improved distribution of ammonia and acid within the granulator. Removing internal rings in ammoniator-granulators has been found to have no negative impact on granulation efficiency, while longer distributors have helped minimize nitrogen loss during the process. Several techniques have been implemented to prevent material caking, including rubber linings, flaps, knockers, and oscillating or spiral scrapers. These mechanisms effectively remove buildup from the walls of the ammoniator-granulator, ensuring smooth operation. Furthermore, a patented device for cleaning and positioning sparger bars has been introduced, enabling their rotation without equipment shutdown and facilitating maintenance. Integrating pre-neutralizers and scrubbers have allowed manufacturers to utilize larger quantities of phosphoric acid and ammonia to produce diammonium phosphate grades. The TVA process, involving partial ammoniation in a pre-neutralizer and complete ammoniation in the ammoniator-granulator, has shown promising results with high ammoniation levels and increased fluidity. This process allows for significant phosphoric acid consumption, resulting in high-quality fertilizers. Bulk handling stations have gained popularity among companies producing high-analysis grades, such as 8-24-2, 10-20-30, 12-24-24, and 20-10-10. These stations optimize transportation costs and enable the marketing of products over longer distances. Typical bulk handling stations consist of storage buildings with multiple bins or elevated storage tanks, utilizing conveyor systems for material unloading, storage, and loading onto bulk trucks. Cost studies indicate that constructing bulk handling stations alongside granulation plants is a competitive alternative to bulk blending, especially for high-analysis grades. However, the economic viability of this system relies on a high material movement, preferably exceeding 70,000 tons. At this scale, the cost-effectiveness of granulation with bulk handling stations approaches that of bulk blending. Collapse
- ItemNew Processes and Products--Present and Future(1966-03-04) Achorn, Frank P.This document highlights the importance for manufacturers to stay updated on new fertilizer technology and how the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) field program aims to address this need. It presents statistics on the consumption of primary nutrients in Florida and predicts a continued rapid increase in their usage. The TVA program focuses on developing cost-effective methods for manufacturing, marketing, and distributing plant nutrients and improving fertilizer processes and products to lower overall costs. The document showcases examples of TVA's achievements, such as developing diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate-based suspensions, which offer lower prices and improved efficiency compared to conventional fertilizers. It also discusses the incorporation of micronutrients into fertilizer blends to minimize segregation issues and increase solubility. Additionally, the document explores the production of solid urea-ammonium phosphate and other potential products, addressing concerns related to nitrogen volatilization and introducing sulfur-coated formulations. TVA's research and development efforts in liquid fertilizers are outlined, highlighting the progression toward higher-analysis grades and the successful incorporation of micronutrients in suspension mixtures. The document concludes by emphasizing TVA's commitment to collaborating with fertilizer companies in Florida, offering technical assistance and expertise to support their operations.
- Item1966 Survey of Continuous Ammoniator-Granulator(1966-11) Achorn, Frank P.; J. S. Lewis, Jr.This document summarizes the content of material presenting the results of a 1966 survey conducted on the continuous ammoniator-granulator used in the fertilizer industry. The study aimed to determine changes in ammoniator-granulator practices over the past five years. Questionnaires were sent to 142 companies, and replies from 57 companies concerning 122 ammoniator-granulators were received. The survey highlights several key trends, including an increase in the size of ammoniator-granulators and a shift toward producing different fertilizer grades, such as ammonium phosphates and granular superphosphates. The report provides detailed data on the grades and ratios produced by ammoniator-granulators and information on equipment specifications, construction materials, and granulation control methods. The findings offer valuable insights for operators using continuous ammoniator-granulators in the fertilizer industry, allowing them to assess their operations compared to industry trends and practices.
- ItemCost Comparison of Ocean Shipment of Anhydrous Ammonia and Solid Urea Versus Shipment of Urea-Ammonia Solution(1966-12) Achorn, Frank P.; Walkup, Harold G.This document presents a study comparing the costs of production and ocean shipment of solid urea and anhydrous ammonia with urea-ammonia solution. The study aims to determine the costs involved in providing solid urea and various grades of urea-ammonium phosphate materials to four destination countries. The production and shipment costs are analyzed for different destination points, including a direct shipment of finished products and the decomposition of urea-ammonia solution into solid urea and ammonia. The study focuses on the Gulf Coast area of the United States to analyze nitrogen-containing primary materials. The document outlines the production and shipment processes for solid urea, anhydrous ammonia, and urea-ammonia solution, considering shipping methods, storage, and handling costs. The destination countries and ports considered in the analysis are Santos, Brazil; Bombay, India; Lagos, Nigeria; and Istanbul, Turkey, which provide a range of conditions and factors such as length of haul, port facilities, and labor costs. The cost analysis is based on engineering cost estimates for modern plants and reliable sources for storage, handling, and shipping costs. The document assumes grassroots plants and accounts for the increased costs of constructing plants overseas. Various cost factors, including working capital, operating labor, maintenance, overhead costs, depreciation, local taxes, and insurance, are considered in the analysis. The estimated costs of manufacturing anhydrous ammonia, urea solution, and urea-ammonia solution are presented, including fixed and variable costs per ton. The analysis includes a breakdown of costs for raw materials, utilities, operating supplies, labor, maintenance, and overhead. The total manufacturing cost per short ton and metric ton is calculated for each product.
- ItemThe Spectrum of Fluid Fertilizers(1967-02) Achorn, Frank P.This material provides an overview of the development and adoption of liquid fertilizers in the United States. The document highlights the growth of the liquid fertilizer industry, particularly nitrogen solutions, and ammonia, which now supply a significant portion of the total nutrient consumption. The use of superphosphoric acid and its role in sequestering impurities in wet-process phosphoric acid is discussed. The document further explores the different types of liquid fertilizer production plants, including liquid hot-mix and liquid cold-mix plants. The potential of suspension fertilizers, their production process, and the benefits of using a base suspension with gelling agents are also addressed. Overall, this document offers valuable insights into the evolution and utilization of fluid fertilizers in agricultural practices.
- ItemMinimizing the Cost of Mixed Fertilizers and Location of Bulk Blending Plants - Part A(1967-08) Achorn, Frank P.This material presents a study on minimizing the cost of mixed fertilizers and the optimal location of bulk blending plants. It is divided into two parts, with Part A focusing on the fundamentals of bulk blending plants and their role in producing dry-mixed granular fertilizers. The material outlines the flow of materials in the bulk blend marketing system, involving basic producers and their production of various nitrogen, phosphate, and N-P products. The blending plant is typically situated within a 50-mile radius of the farms it serves. Each phase of the bulk blend marketing system incurs costs, and it is the responsibility of the blender to determine the most cost-effective combination of these costs to deliver and apply plant nutrients on the farm. The material introduces a least-cost linear program developed by Mr. Walker to assist blenders in making informed decisions. It highlights the transportation and handling costs of the bulk blend marketing system and explores the impact of higher-analysis materials on reducing these costs. The benefits of using higher-analysis materials include decreased transportation costs and the ability to produce mixtures of higher nutrient analyses. The production of high-analysis grades is advantageous for blenders as it lowers their fixed and handling costs per unit of plant food. The material emphasizes the importance of considering delivered costs, fixed and operating costs, and finding the least-cost mixtures to deliver to the farm at the lowest price. Blenders can enhance their sales programs and improve their economic viability by optimizing these factors. The material concludes by mentioning how the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) supports blenders in determining the least-cost mixtures based on the materials available to them.
- ItemRecent Developments in Granulation II(1967-09) Achorn, Frank P.This material discusses developments in granulation techniques in the fertilizer industry, presented by Frank P. Achorn at the Seminar for Latin American Fertilizer Executives in September 1967. The number of granulation plants in the United States and abroad has been steadily increasing. Many companies that previously produced pulverized mixtures have converted their batch ammoniators to granulators to produce granular products. Large-scale granulation plants have incorporated pre-neutralizers to manufacture diammonium phosphate grades. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) ammoniator-granulator has been widely utilized for the production of diammonium phosphate and triple superphosphate grades by major granular fertilizer producers. These products are often marketed through blending plants, where they are mixed with potash to create different nitrogen, P₂O₅, and K₂O ratios. The conversion of small pulverized-mix plants into granulation plants has involved modifying the batch mixers by installing ammonia and acid distributors. Sketches and flow diagrams illustrate these modifications and the operation of batch granulation plants. Rotary coolers are used to rapidly cool the granular products, with some producers choosing to screen and recirculate the cooled material to the granulator for improved quality control. Certain companies have further converted their ammoniators into continuous granulators by enlarging the discharge and operating continuously. However, due to production limitations, some companies plan to construct conventional ammoniator-granulation plants to achieve higher production rates.
- ItemFluid Fertilizer Application Equipment(1967-10) Achorn, Frank P.This document provides an overview of fluid fertilizer application equipment, focusing on metering and pumping systems used in various agricultural applications. The material examines different types of equipment, their operational principles, and their effectiveness in delivering liquid fertilizers accurately and uniformly. The discussion begins with exploring two common methods of metering anhydrous ammonia, utilizing variable orifice meters and piston-type metering pumps. Details are provided on their functioning, including the maintenance of constant pressure and the role of diaphragms and springs. The document then explores different approaches for broadcasting non pressure solutions. It describes a truck-mounted system with a flooding-type nozzle, where application rates are adjusted based on pressure and air agitation. Another technique uses multiple nozzles and a recirculating pump, highlighting the challenges of achieving uniform application rates due to overlapping. Additionally, a slinger-type applicator is presented as an effective solution for suspensions. Row and pre-plant applications of nonpressure solutions are addressed, focusing on gravity-flow systems and constant head metering. The latter involves converting a drum into a metering system, ensuring airtightness, and utilizing an orifice disk for rate control. The material also discusses positive displacement pumps, such as piston-type pumps suitable for liquid fertilizers and aqua ammonia. It introduces squeeze pumps for row applications, where a liquid is drawn into rubber tubes and expelled through variations in roller speed. Internal gear pumps and roller-impeller pumps are examined as alternative positive displacement options. It also provides a concise overview of various fluid fertilizer application equipment, outlining their mechanisms, functionalities, and application suitability. It is a valuable resource for agricultural professionals seeking to understand and select appropriate equipment for precise and efficient fluid fertilizer application.
- ItemTechnical Aspects of Suspensions(1967-11-29) Achorn, Frank P.; Kimbrough, Homer L.This document explores the rapid growth and increasing interest in suspensions within the fertilizer industry, focusing on three major reasons for their popularity. Firstly, suspensions allow for producing high-analysis grades with significantly higher concentrations than clear liquids. Secondly, they provide a means of incorporating nutrients into fluid fertilizers. Lastly, suspensions enable the effective suspension of pesticide or herbicide fluids, reducing the need for multiple applications. The production of suspensions typically involves two main procedures: hot and cold mixing. Hot mixing utilizes acid and superphosphates, often combined with ammonia, resulting in heat release during the mixing process. On the other hand, cold mixing involves using materials that do not generate heat when mixed. Various suspension grades, such as 12-12-12, 9-27-9, and 12-15-10, have been successfully produced through hot-mix processes. Different suspensions are created based on the choice of raw materials and the chemical reactions involved. For instance, the neutralization of orthophosphoric acid with aqua ammonia produces ammonium phosphate suspensions, while nitric acid reacted with phosphate rock yields nitric phosphate suspensions. Each type has its advantages and considerations. Although lower in the analysis compared to ammonium phosphate suspensions, Nitric phosphate suspensions offer the benefit of using low-cost raw materials. Triple superphosphate can also be used to produce suspensions, either through ammoniation with aqua ammonia or an ammoniating solution. This approach allows for the utilization of low-cost phosphate and eliminates the need for additional suspending clay. However, the crushing and screening of triple superphosphate pose challenges due to its sticky nature. Additionally, the document describes a continuous hot-mix plant that produces a base ammonium polyphosphate suspension, specifically the 12-40-0 grade. This base suspension is then marketed through cold-mix plants as a liquid fertilizer. With its regional approach, the 12-40-0 suspension marketing system simplifies the supply chain and has gained acceptance in the fluid fertilizer industry.
- ItemFluid Fertilizers - 1967(1967-12-14) Achorn, Frank P.This material summarizes material presented by Frank P. Achorn at the 1967 Maine Plant Food Society meeting. The material focuses on the growing interest in fluid fertilizers, including clear liquids and suspensions, among manufacturers and consumers. It highlights the increasing consumption of liquid mixed fertilizers and their significant role in the fertilizer industry. The material provides insights into the classification and operation of hot-mix and cold-mix plants for fluid fertilizer production. It discusses the use of different raw materials, such as phosphoric acid, ammonia, and potash, and their effects on manufacturing. The document also explores suspensions' production and potential advantages, particularly in addressing the need for micronutrients. It also touches on economic considerations and the future outlook for clear liquids and suspensions in the fluid fertilizer market.
- ItemRecent Developments in Granulation III(1968-05) Achorn, Frank P.This document presents developments in granulation techniques discussed at the Management Seminar for Indian Fertilizer Executives by Frank P. Achorn, Head of the Process and Product Improvement Section at the Division of Agriculture Development, Tennessee Valley Authority. The document highlights the increasing number of granulation plants in the United States and abroad, with companies converting their small pulverized-mix plants to produce granular products. Various advancements are discussed, such as using TVA ammoniator-granulators, installing pre-neutralizers and scrubbers, and converting batch ammoniators to continuous granulators. The use of superphosphoric acid in small granulation plants to produce high-analysis grades is also explored. Additionally, the document describes different types of granulation plants, including small batch plants, conventional ammoniation-granulation plants, and up-to-date continuous ammoniator-granulators, along with their operational processes and benefits. Implementing innovative strategies to prevent material buildups on the ammoniator-granulator surfaces, such as rubber lining and flaps, is also addressed. These developments aim to improve granular fertilizer production's efficiency, productivity, and quality.
- ItemSuspensions by Cold Mixing(1968-07) Achorn, Frank P.; Balay, Hubert L.The document explores the process of cold mixing as a method for producing fluid fertilizers. Cold mixing combines clear liquid base solutions with clay, urea-ammonium nitrate, potash, and other additives to create high-analysis suspensions. The document discusses the equipment and procedures involved in the cold mixing process, including plant setup, mixing tanks, agitation techniques, and storage considerations. It also examines various materials used in cold mixing, such as clear liquids (10-34-0, 11-37-0), ammonium polyphosphate, potash, and micronutrients. The advantages and challenges of cold mixing suspensions and potential developments in the field are discussed. The report concludes by emphasizing the growing popularity of suspension fertilizers and the need for cost-effective production methods like cold mixing.
- ItemNew Developments in Manufacture and Use of Liquid Fertilisers(1973-02-15) Slack, A.V.; Achorn, Frank P.This document provides an overview of the developments in the manufacture and use of liquid fertilizers over the past five years. While using liquid fertilizers on a large scale is relatively new, spanning only about 20 years, it has proven to be an area ripe with opportunities for innovation. The paper explores the historical context of liquid fertilizer use and highlights significant advancements and trends in the field. It discusses the objectives of liquid fertilizer production, such as cost efficiency, high nutrient concentration, product quality, low pollutant emission, and uniform application. The challenges and advantages associated with liquid fertilizers are examined, with a focus on nutrient concentration and the use of polyphosphates. The paper summarizes recent polyphosphate chemistry and hydrolysis research, offering insights into improving liquid fertilizer production and addressing associated issues.
- ItemIFDC Report, Volume 1, No. 1(1976-02) IFDCThis report provides an overview of the International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC) and its activities during the year. IFDC, established in 1974, aims to improve fertilizers and fertilizer know-how for developing countries, particularly in tropical and subtropical agriculture, to increase food production. The report highlights the organizational structure of IFDC, including its staff composition and divisional units. It discusses the progress made in establishing temporary offices and laboratories, as well as plans for constructing new buildings on Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) property. Funding for IFDC's operations and facility construction is provided by the United States Agency for International Development (AID) and other potential donors. The report also mentions the contracting of work with various countries and organizations, as well as collaboration with TVA and universities to access specialized expertise. The chairman's report emphasizes the importance of IFDC's role in global food production and its integration with the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). The report further focuses on IFDC's phosphate program, which addresses the utilization of low-grade phosphate ores and the development of effective and economical phosphate fertilizers for tropical and subtropical soils. It emphasizes the need for balanced fertilization programs and the exploration of direct applications of pulverized phosphate rock. Additionally, the report highlights IFDC's involvement in studying China's approach to fertilizer development, particularly in rural small-scale industries, and the potential transferability of their technologies to other developing countries. Finally, the report discusses IFDC's training programs, specifically the development of a fertilizer plant maintenance training program and a fertilizer marketing program. These initiatives aim to enhance knowledge and skills in maintaining production systems and improving marketing strategies in the fertilizer industry.
- ItemIFDC Report, Volume 1, No. 2(1976-05) IFDCThis report provides an overview of the building program undertaken by the International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC) with the support of a USAID grant. The program comprises three phases: Phase A, Phase B, and Phase C. Phase A includes the construction of a greenhouse, headhouse, laboratories, and offices, scheduled for occupancy by October 1976. Phase B involves the development of a pilot-plant building with associated laboratories and offices, targeted for completion by February 1977. Phase C focuses on completing the main laboratory-office buildings and landscaping, with an estimated completion and occupancy date of March 1978. The IFDC's current staff of 40 people is temporarily housed in two different locations, with plans to retain the temporary facilities until the entire building program is finalized. Brasfield and Gorrie, Incorporated, were awarded the construction contract for Phase A and have already initiated clearing and excavation work. The report also mentions the recent IFDC board meeting, where various topics were discussed and approved, including program activities, auditor's reports, construction contracts, and forming an executive committee. The resignation of Mr Lynn Seeber as IFDC Secretary-Treasurer is noted, and Dr Pendergrass assumes the responsibilities along with his vice chairman role. Furthermore, the publication highlights the research and development efforts of IFDC in fertilizer technology and agronomic practices. It mentions the focus on exploiting indigenous phosphate sources, conducting beneficiation tests on different ores, and studying phosphate rocks' behavior in reagents and soil solutions. Collaborative projects with TVA are mentioned, focusing on supergranule urea production and improving nitrogen fertilizer efficiency. The construction of new facilities for expanding research programs is also highlighted. Additionally, the report discusses IFDC's efforts in accelerating agricultural development, including research in soil fertility, agronomy, economics, and sociology. It mentions ongoing projects related to the direct application of phosphate rock, factors influencing fertilizer use among small farmers, and country case studies to assess the impact of public policy measures. The improvement of fertilizer supply and demand forecasting and analysis of fertilizer sector issues are also mentioned. IFDC's outreach division, responsible for technology transfer, technical assistance, and training, is also discussed. Examples of ongoing projects are provided, such as problem identification in West Africa, technical assistance in Taiwan and Colombia, and plans for expanding outreach efforts. Lastly, the report mentions the addition of a worldwide direct dial teletypewriter exchange service to IFDC's communication system and introduces the IFDEC abbreviation as the organization's name. It concludes by acknowledging the growth of the IFDC family and recent events, including the birth of the first baby within an IFDC family and the successful bulk fertilizer shipment to Ghana.
- ItemMarketing Advantages of Using Solid Materials in Suspensions(1976-07) Balay, Hubert L.This material highlights the marketing advantages of utilizing solid materials in suspension fertilizers. The presentation by Hubert L. Balay, a chemical engineer from the Tennessee Valley Authority, discusses the benefits of solid materials over fluids in terms of cost-effectiveness and ease of transportation. Using solid materials in suspension fertilizers reduces transportation costs, especially considering the rising freight rates for dilute materials. The author explores various solid materials, including monoammonium phosphate, TVA ammonium polyphosphate, diammonium phosphate, solid urea, TVA granular urea-ammonium phosphate (UAP), calcium phosphate, red potash, and micronutrients. The presentation concludes by emphasizing the potential savings and future implications of adopting solid materials in suspension fertilizer production. This information is based on a presentation at the NFSA Round-Up conference in 1976 in St. Louis, Missouri.
- ItemIFDC Report, Volume 1, No. 3(1976-08) IFDCThe material highlights critical topics discussed in the issue, including the IFDC facility's design and engineering, international status, cooperative agreements, progress achieved in the first year of operation, fertilizer development studies, human resource development, factory maintenance courses, outreach activities, and technology transfer. The report begins by emphasizing the flexibility of design and engineering standards applied to the IFDC facility, allowing for expansion and inexpensive remodelling. The construction progress of different phases of the facility is discussed, with Phase A nearly ready for occupancy, Phase B under construction, and Phase C set to be completed in early 1978. The publication highlights the international status of IFDC, with the managing director attending Centers Week in Washington, D.C., and the CGIAR nominating three members to the IFDC Board of Directors. Cooperative agreements with CIAT and IRRI are mentioned, with plans to station IFDC staff at each centre to focus on specific research areas. The report further covers the progress made by IFDC in its first year of operation, including inquiries received, visitors from outside the United States, fertilizer development studies conducted for the ASEAN region and Sahelian countries of West Africa, and the compilation of a world database system on fertilizer technology and use. The publication also mentions ongoing research programs, such as social science research to improve fertilizer decision-making and a fertilizer research program focused on nitrogen and phosphorus effectiveness in tropical and subtropical agriculture. The report then provides an overview of the West Africa Fertilizer Study, discussing significant food deficits, fertilizer use, fertilizer materials, and various supply alternatives analyzed by IFDC. The importance of human resource development is highlighted, including training programs for Bangladeshi engineers in fertilizer factory maintenance conducted in cooperation with TVA's National Fertilizer Development Center (NFDC). The publication concludes with a section on outreach activities, including technology transfer to Asia, involvement in TVA's Technology Demonstration, and the orientation and demonstration of IFDC's world fertilizer database system. The publication also acknowledges the contributions and roles of individuals involved in IFDC's nitrogen program and technical assistance provided to the Taiwan Fertilizer Company.
- ItemRecent Developments in the Production and Use of Monoammonium Phosphate(1976-10) Balay, Hubert L.; Salladay, David G.This document provides an overview of the recent developments in the production and utilization of monoammonium phosphate (MAP). The versatility of MAP has contributed to its growing popularity as a granular bulk blend material and a replacement for superphosphates in granulation plants. The low delivery cost of MAP compared to other ammonium phosphate products has further increased its appeal. The document explores various grades of MAP being produced and the processes involved in its production. The use of MAP in bulk blending is examined, highlighting its advantage over diammonium phosphate in achieving a wide range of blend ratios without the need for additional phosphate materials. The document discusses the need for additional nitrogen when using MAP and the availability of local nitrogen suppliers. Formulas for common grades blended from MAP, and diammonium phosphate are provided. Furthermore, the document explores the use of powdered MAP in granulation plants, particularly as a replacement for normal superphosphate and triple superphosphate. The cost-effectiveness, convenience in shipping, and compatibility with existing equipment make MAP a preferred choice in granulating high nitrogen grades. Operational experiences from a plant using MAP in the granulation process are shared, including challenges encountered and successful formulations. The document also discusses the use of MAP in fluid fertilizers and its contribution to suspension fertilizers. Factors such as impurity content, mole ratios, and the need for high-intensity mixing equipment are considered. Additionally, the production of ammonium polyphosphate from wet-process phosphoric acid is addressed, highlighting its storage and handling characteristics. Collapse
- ItemIFDC Report, Volume 1, No. 4(1976-12) IFDCThe publication covers various topics related to phosphorus research, including the progress at IFDC, the utilization of indigenous ores, the global shortage of phosphate rock, and the exploration of new methods for phosphorus fertilizer production. Additionally, it highlights the expansion of the IFDC Board of Directors and the advancements in the organization's building program. The publication summarizes critical research areas such as fertilizer raw materials, rock characterization, upgrading problem ores, evaluation of phosphate rock for direct application, and administrative appointments within IFDC. The publication also provides information on upcoming seminars and the establishment of regional coordinators for Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Overall, this report offers a glimpse into the valuable research and developments in phosphorus-related studies and the efforts of IFDC to improve global food production.