Browsing by Subject "Agricultural productivity"
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- ItemA Dynamic Model to Forecast and Evaluate Changes and Trends in the Global Market for Fertilizers(2011-05) Marcien NibasumbaFertilizers, improved seed and modernized crop management practices have contributed substantially to increases in agricultural productivity in recent decades, while helping to conserve ever-shrinking land resources and water supplies. Fertilizers will continue to play a key role in expanding agricultural productivity to meet the ever-increasing world demand for food, feed and bio-fuels. Forecasts of the trends that drive the rapidly expanding demand for these agricultural products and the associated supply of crop nutrients are critical for sound decision-making on a wide range of policy issues. Such trend forecasts are crucial to improving strategic planning and resource allocation; prioritizing investments in fertilizer production/supply expansion (based on expected impacts and risks); and reducing risks associated with the development of government policy and public/private sector investment. The objective of this paper is to illustrate the capability of FertTrade, a fertilizer trade model/algorithm created by IFDC as an analytical tool to address questions about development of the fertilizer and agricultural sectors around the world. Fert Trade estimates trends in the demand, production, supply and trade of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilizer nutrients through 2025. FertTrade also assesses "what if" scenarios to evaluate changes in national variables such as populations, incomes, crop areas and yields. Fert Trade is a tool that can be used to help understand the nature and concept of derived fertilizer demand and the variables that are primary reasons for changes in that demand. The following factors are taken into account in the FertTrade modeling process: 1. Nature of Fertilizer Demand. 2. Climate Change. 3. Population and Income Growth. 4. Demand for Bio-Fuels. 5. Fertilizer and Food Prices. 6. Improvements in Technology. Fert Trade's analytics can be used to evaluate scenarios of changing demographic, economic, technological and agro-climatic circumstances that affect agricultural production and the global demand, production and trade of the major fertilizer nutrients (N, P and K). For demonstration purposes, Fert Trade was used to estimate and evaluate trends in the demand, production and trade of these fertilizer nutrients globally on the basis of estimates aggregated for the world as a whole, regionally and sub-regionally. Crop production outputs produced as simulation outcomes were used to estimate quantities of derived demand for the nutrients in each of the nations/sub-regions. The model included five major components: 1. Scenario design. 2. Estimation of crop production outputs by a commodity market model. 3. Estimation of the derived demand for the three fertilizer nutrients 4. Projections of production capacities and supplies of N, P and K. 5. Estimation of volumes and patterns of trade for N, P and K. Trend modeling and projections of demand/supply of world fertilizer nutrients through 2025 are also vital compo- nents of Fert Trade. Trends in key countries, regions and sub-regions are also addressed. Results of national/sub- regional analyses of demand and supply projections for N, P and K nutrients in 2005, 2015 and 2025 will be detailed and summarized in this paper. Highlights of these trends include: 1. Exponential rates of growth of demand for N, P and K. 2. Projected fertilizer demand growth rates during 2005-2025 3. Increases in the demand and consumption of N, P and K fertilizers 4. Increases in the production and supply of N, P and K fertilizers 5. The supply-demand balance and trade of N, Pand K fertilizers Currently, FertTrade is a useful tool for policy change and reclusology development decisions that she fertilizer performance and agriculture sectors globally, regionally and nationally in this context, the codel can be used to evaluate ex-ante changes induced by policies or technology innovations that affect these sectors using "what if scenarios. Thus, FertTrade can be used to assess such changes in teos of impacts an agricultural production productivity and the demand, supply and trade of fertilizers. A "what if scenario was designed to assess the primary economic and enviniamental impacts of cuccessfully increasing fertilizer N use efficiency in cereal production from 40 percent to 60 percent. Then, the potential emo feasibility for society as a whole to invest in such technology was assessed. Subjects of the evaluation include 1. The efficiency of fertilizer N applied to crops. 2. The context for assessment of impact of increased N-efficiency in cereal production 3. Impact on consumption of fertilizer N. 4. Impact on losses of fertilizer N to the environment 5. Economic impact in developing countries. 6. Impact on the environment. Results will show that even if investments in this effort are substantial (175 $4 billion during five years), res on investment will justify such investments-if the N use efficiency goals are reached and the projected levels of adoption by cereal farmers are achieved within the proposed time horizon of 10-15 years. Fert Trade currently is utilized for analyses and evaluation of issues and evolving circumstances that affect fertil izer sectors and agricultural production and development globally, regionally and nationally. However, Feride's capabilities and applications can be significantly expanded through additional model development and refinement. For example, by expanding its capability to derive estimates of, and pollution associated with, livestock and emp production (as well as fertilizer production and use), environmental impacts could be estimated and assessed Sub- quently, FertTrade could be used to evaluate scenarios of changing circumstances in terms of potential enviromental impacts. The model's current capabilities, limitations and possibilities for further development will be described and detailed over the course of the paper.
- ItemAccelerating Vegetable Productivity Improvement (AVPI) :Annual Report November 2017 – October 2018(2018) IFDCThe Walmart Foundation entered into an agreement with the International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC) on August 23, 2016, for the "Accelerating Vegetable Productivity Improvement" (AVPI) project, spanning two years. The project, commencing in November 2016, aimed to empower low-income women horticulture farmers in Bangladesh by introducing advanced agricultural production technologies and enhancing market knowledge. Despite an initial oversight in the project duration, an amendment extended it until December 2018. AVPI sought to build on the successes of the 2013-15 Walmart Foundation-IFDC partnership, emphasizing fertilizer deep placement (FDP) and introducing new production technologies. The project focused on 10 districts, targeting 24 sub-districts and 47 village clusters, benefiting approximately 37,892 women farmers. AVPI prioritized local ownership and sustainable practices, partnering with private sector input dealers and collaborating with the Department of Agricultural Extension. The goals included consolidating previous gains, introducing new technologies, and improving market knowledge for women vegetable farmers. The project achieved significant milestones, covering diverse areas such as soil fertility mapping, technology demonstrations, regulatory framework enhancement, and COVID-19 impact assessments on the fertilizer sector in Senegal.
- ItemAcknowledgement of the Unrecognized Spice and Herbs Sector by Empowering Women(2021) IFDCThis case study explores the partnership between Damascene Essential Oils Processing PLC and 2SCALE in Ethiopia, focusing on empowering women in the spice and herb sector. The partnership aims to increase women's engagement in the industry by mobilizing them into cooperatives and providing training and resources to enhance their productivity and market access. The study highlights women's gender-based constraints in the sector, including limited control over income, lack of access to extension programs, and restricted access to production resources. Through the partnership, women farmers have gained access to quality seeds, training in improved agricultural practices, and support in decision-making processes. As a result, women have experienced increased productivity, improved household income, and greater participation in managing their farms. The study also emphasizes the role of youth employment in the partnership, with over 50 employment opportunities created, including 15 for women. Overall, the partnership has demonstrated the potential for women's economic empowerment and job creation for youth, contributing to poverty alleviation and food security in Ethiopia's spice and herb sector.
- ItemACTIVITIES REPORT 2022: NIGERIA(2022) IFDCNigeria faces numerous challenges in its agricultural sector, including poor land tenure, low irrigation farming, climate change, and limited market access. These challenges hinder agricultural productivity and contribute to declining food sufficiency levels despite the sector's significant contribution to the economy. With a rapidly growing population, enhancing agriculture productivity by adopting new technologies and innovations is crucial to ensure food and nutrition security. The International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC) has worked in Nigeria for nearly two decades, empowering smallholder farmers and implementing various projects and programs. These initiatives include the Developing Agri Inputs Market in Nigeria (DAIMINA) program, Nigeria Fertilizer Voucher Program, West Africa Fertilizer Program (WAFP), and the 2SCALE program. IFDC's interventions focus on sustainable agricultural practices, eco-efficient technologies, digital tools, and market systems to improve crop and animal productivity, food security, and food quality and safety standards. This report provides an overview of IFDC's interventions in Nigeria during 2021-2022, highlighting the alignment of activities with the Government Action Plan and the significant results achieved. It showcases projects such as HortiNigeria, which aims to develop a sustainable and inclusive horticulture sector, and EnGRAIS, which promotes the availability and use of affordable fertilizers for smallholder farmers. The report also outlines IFDC's involvement in initiatives like TRIMING, RRA, and AfricaFertilizer, each contributing to agricultural development and resilience. Furthermore, the report emphasizes the alignment of IFDC's projects with Nigeria's agricultural policy, as demonstrated by the National Agricultural Technology and Innovation Policy (NATIP). This policy seeks to transform the agri-food system, incorporate technology and innovation, and drive economic and social change through public and private sector investments in agriculture and rural development. IFDC's interventions in Nigeria have been instrumental in empowering smallholder farmers, improving agricultural productivity, and fostering food and nutrition security. By implementing innovative technologies, market systems approaches, and sustainable practices, IFDC has made significant contributions to Nigeria's agricultural sector, aligning with the country's agricultural policy and promoting long-lasting economic and social change.
- ItemFeed the Future Soil Fertility Technology (SFT) Adoption, Policy Reform and Knowledge Management Project Semi-Annual Performance Report April 1, 2018 – September 30, 2018(2018) IFDCThis report summarizes the progress made toward achieving the objectives of a cooperative agreement between the International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC) and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). The agreement supports the Bureau for Food Security (BFS) objectives, particularly concerning the Feed the Future (FTF) initiative. The activities carried out under the agreement focus on enhancing the management of mineral and organic fertilizers by smallholder farmers in developing countries. The report also highlights the major activities conducted in two workstreams. Under Workstream 1, IFDC sets and validates technologies, approaches, and practices to address nutrient management issues and promote sustainable agricultural intensification. The activities include refining technologies to mitigate stress and improve nutrient use efficiency, conducting balanced plant nutrition research, assessing fertilizer quality, and enhancing soil dynamics models. Under Workstream 2, IFDC supports policy reforms and market development by conducting evidence-based policy analyses. The aim is to accelerate agricultural growth through improved technologies, particularly fertilizers. The activities include supporting the development and implementation of fertilizer and soil-related policies, conducting impact assessment studies on soil and fertilization technologies, and performing economic studies to inform decision-making and identify policy areas for interventions. The report also discusses cross-cutting issues, such as university partnerships and knowledge management, addressed through outreach activities and research outcomes and findings dissemination.
- ItemFeed the Future Soil Fertility Technology (SFT) Adoption, Policy Reform and Knowledge Management Project: Semi-Annual Performance Report October 1, 2016 – March 30, 2017(2016-04) IFDCThis report provides an overview of the progress made by the International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC) in achieving the objectives outlined in its cooperative agreement with the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). The agreement aims to support smallholder farmers in developing countries by enhancing their ability to manage fertilizers responsibly, increase agricultural productivity, and participate in input and output markets. The report highlights the realignment of the project's results framework. It focuses on two key workstreams: developing and validating soil fertility and plant nutrient management technologies and supporting policy reforms and market development. The activities and interventions proposed under each workstream are described, including the refinement of fertilizer technologies for climate resilience, assessment of fertilizer quality, policy analysis, impact studies, economic studies, and the identification of fertilizer trends and outlooks. The report also emphasizes cross-cutting issues, such as knowledge management and learning agendas, and outlines additional activities related to data collection, dissemination of knowledge, and collaboration with universities. The report covers the period from October 1, 2016, to March 30, 2017, and summarizes the major activities conducted during this timeframe.
- ItemFertilizer Quality Assessment in Markets of Uganda(2018-04) Joaquin Sanabria; Joshua Ariga; Job Fugice; Dennis MoseWith funding from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC) is conducting a series of fertilizer quality assessments in Eastern and Southern Africa. Despite Uganda’s relatively small fertilizer market and low fertilizer consumption, it was selected for the assessment because the small fertilizer market and simple value chains exhibit characteristics that may influence fertilizer quality. In addition, there is potential for increasing consumption as imports have been increasing for the last decade with substantial fertilizer trade activity across its borders, mainly Kenya and Tanzania. The objectives of these studies are to conduct fertilizer quality diagnostics that reveal detailed quality conditions in the value chains of country members of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) and East African Community (EAC) and to use this information to recommend policy solutions for the problems identified. These solutions are targeted at reforming regulations and policies both at country and regional levels. Crafting solutions only for incountry quality problems would be insufficient given the existence of significant fertilizer trade between neighboring countries. The IFDC fertilizer quality assessment team first trained a group of 29 oficials of the Uganda Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry, and Fisheries (MAAIF) to perform the role of quality inspectors and collect samples from fertilizer markets in various regions of the country. Then, a random approach was used to select fertilizer dealers and collect fertilizer samples for chemical analyses. Data were also collected on fertilizer markets, dealers, physical properties of the products, and storage conditions from the sample of dealers. After conducting chemical analyses on fertilizer samples in the labs, the estimated nutrient content for fertilizers and cadmium (Cd) content were then incorporated into the dataset for analysis. Based on the number of samples collected from the fertilizers available in the markets, the fertilizers were classified as “large trade” or “low trade.” The large trade fertilizer group included diammonium phosphate (DAP), urea, NPK 17-17-17, calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN), NPKS 25-5-5+5S, and ammonium sulfate. The low trade fertilizer group included numerous products with nutrient content in a wide range of grades and in the form of granulated, liquid, crystal, and powder fertilizers. Nutrient content shortages in fertilizers were quantified in terms of frequency (how often they occur) and severity (the extent to which the shortages are out of compliance). The total nitrogen contents out of compliance (OOC) for DAP, 17-17-17, and 25-5-5+5S were 0%, 13%, and 27%, respectively; the severities for total nitrogen OOC in the same fertilizers were 0%, -1.7%, and -3.9%, respectively. Available phosphorus (P2O5) shortages OOC for the same fertilizers were 6%, 0%, and 12%, respectively, and the shortage severities were -2.5%, 0%, and -2.3%, respectively. Soluble potassium (K2O) OOC shortage frequencies were 9% and 0% for 17-17-17 and 25-5-5+5S, respectively, and the OOC severities for the same nutrient and fertilizers were -5.5% and 0%, respectively. Total nitrogen OOC shortages in urea and ammonium sulfate were 10% and 0%, respectively. Total nitrogen OOC shortages occurred in four CAN samples out of 10. The OOC shortage severities of total nitrogen in urea, ammonium sulfate, and CAN were -1.25%, 0%, and -1.01%, respectively. The liquid fertilizers had significantly higher frequencies and severities of nutrient shortages OOC than the granulated fertilizers; among the granulated products, the set of fertilizers of low commercialization presented higher frequencies and severities of nutrient content shortages OOC than the set of fertilizers of high commercialization. This difference suggests the volume or market share of the products is related to the quality, that products with higher market share show evidence of being manufactured with more care than products of low market share, and/or products with higher market share are less affected by quality-influencing factors along the distribution chain. Ten percent of the fertilizer bags used for weight verifications presented weight shortages beyond the 0.5-kilogram (kg) tolerance limits. Since Uganda has negligible re-bagging of 50-kg bags, the weight shortages must originate in the manufacturing plants or in the in-country bagging of fertilizers that are imported in bulk. Most storage areas used by wholesalers and retailers do not regulate the temperature and relative humidity (RH) to the level required for the preservation of the physical and chemical properties of fertilizers, but due to appropriate granulation and the good quality of the bags used, cases of moist fertilizers, caking, and granular degradation in the fertilizers found in Ugandan markets were identified with low frequency. For these reasons, the nutrient content shortages found can hardly be attributed to degradation of physical properties. No evidence of fertilizer adulteration was found in the sampling and inspection of 50-kg bags, which make up more than 90% of fertilizers traded in Uganda. Exiting literature reports that have identified adulterated fertilizers in bags containing 1-5 kg base their conclusions only on chemical lab results. Additional verification to identify and quantify foreign materials that may have been used to dilute nutrient content is needed to ensure that the out-of-compliance shortages are not due to manufacture deficiencies or uncontrolled variability in chemical analysis. Even if adulteration in small fertilizer packs is proven, it is far from being a significant source of fertilizer quality problems in Uganda given the small fraction of the total trade represented by these small packs. Only 8% of smallholder farming households use inorganic fertilizers, 1 and their use is very low at about 1 kg of nutrient per hectare per year. 2 After discarding degradation of physical properties and adulteration in 50-kg bags as reasons for fertilizer nutrient content shortages, then what is left as the most likely cause is deficient manufacture of some of the imported fertilizers and inadequate port inspection. Cadmium is a toxic element that can accumulate in soil and crop products. The maximum cadmium content found in fertilizers containing P2O5 in Uganda was in a DAP sample with 23 parts per million (ppm) of Cd or 10.7 milligram (mg) Cd per kg P2O5. These two values are below the Kenya tolerance limit of 30 ppm and the European tolerance limit of 20 mg Cd/kg P2O5. The relatively small difference between the maximum Cd found in the fertilizers commercialized in Uganda and the international tolerance limits (TLs) justify continuing to monitor closely the Cd content and the origin of the phosphate rock used in the manufacture of fertilizers, since Cd content in phosphate rock varies with the location and type of deposit. On the regulatory side, the findings of this study point to the need for quality inspections at both domestic and international levels, because some of the quality issues identified may be connected to manufacture or points on the value chain outside of Uganda. It is also important to teach farmers that even with good quality fertilizers, raising yields to desirable levels requires a holistic approach to crop management that includes fertilizer use at rates suggested by soil characteristics and crop balance nutrition needs and the use of good quality seeds and crop protection inputs at the right rates and times.
- ItemFERTINEWS-April 2023 Edition(2023-04)With funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, AfricaFertilizer, in collaboration with Development Gateway, an IREX venture, has expanded its efforts by developing and launching five additional Visualizing Insights on Fertilizer for African Agriculture (VIFAA) dashboards in Ethiopia, Malawi, Mozambique, Senegal, and Zambia. This initiative follows the successful launch of three earlier dashboards in Kenya, Nigeria, and Ghana. The VIFAA dashboards serve as a comprehensive source of vital fertilizer-related information, addressing key challenges in the fertilizer industry by bridging information gaps, facilitating data-driven policy and investment decisions, and enabling stakeholders to respond effectively to changes in the fertilizer market. The existing country-specific dashboards have been integrated into AfricaFertilizer's new website, offering stakeholders access to up-to-date and comprehensive data on fertilizer trade, production, consumption, retail prices, and production capacities across over 18 sub-Saharan African countries. This article also includes insights into national fertilizer market dynamics, pricing trends, and government initiatives to improve agricultural productivity through affordable fertilizers.
- ItemFERTINEWS-July 2023 Edition(2023-07)The July 2023 edition of FertiNews provides insights into the fertilizer market in various African countries. It highlights the deployment of Visualizing Insights on Fertilizer for African Agriculture (VIFAA) dashboards by AfricaFertilizer, in collaboration with the International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC) and Development Gateway, to enhance access to fertilizer statistics for business and policy decisions. The newsletter presents a range of information detailing price fluctuations and market dynamics, including national fertilizer market comments for countries like Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo. It also offers international fertilizer market prices and comments, showcasing trends in key fertilizer types. Notably, the newsletter covers developments such as fertilizer shipments, government subsidies, donations, and initiatives to improve agricultural productivity and food security in African nations.
- ItemFood Security and Employment under a Changing Climate in Mali: What Are the Options?(2017)In 2016, around 2.5 million people were considered food-insecure: almost 15% of the population. Mali has rather distinct agricultural production systems that collectively can ensure food self-sufficiency. A healthy but still moderate food supply for all in 2050 and 2100 would require food availability to increase about 3- fold and 6-fold respectively, compared to 2015. It is not impossible to achieve this in a sustainable manner by a combination of the following options: Rainfed agriculture can suffice to provide the population with a moderate diet up to 2100 (in particular maize, millet and sorghum). Water use efficiency can be dramatically increased through a comprehensive agronomic package of measures. Rice and irrigated cultivation can still be considerably enhanced, in particular by investing in water use efficiency and other improved practices. Irrigated rice remains a water-inefficient system, competing with more efficient agricultural water uses. The Inner Niger Delta in particular produces large amounts of irrigated rice, meat and fish. More large scale irrigation here may go at the expense of current water-based livelihoods, although some optimization is possible. A reliable estimate of the total potential of this area requires a more comprehensive assessment. Large-scale irrigated rice creates relatively less employment. Improving livestock cultivation is still possible, but highly depends on innovations in fodder supply. Fish production can increase by means of aquaculture. Cash crops and trade still have considerable growth potential, not so much for the already important cotton, but much more for exotic products; the potential could not be assessed in this study. With current IPCC scenarios, the potential described above can still be realized, albeit at higher investment cost for additional adaptation measures. Sound knowledge and farm management and collective infrastructure management become more critical. Realizing the potential food production is the most realistic option to increase livelihoods and employment in Mali. Employment will be created in the primary production, but in particular along the value chain, such as in the input sector for service providers and agro-dealers and in food processing industries. Private and public actors together may give priority to value chains that give them most return-on-investment, as well as contribute most to sustainable development.
- ItemFostering Sustainable Agriculture through Data-Driven Collaboration and Partnership: Ethiopia, Mozambique, and Nigeria(2023) IFDCThis study explores the transformative impact of collaborative efforts on sustainable agriculture in Ethiopia, Mozambique, and Nigeria. Historically low fertilizer usage in Africa, attributed to various challenges, has hindered agricultural productivity. Despite efforts by governments and international agencies to promote sustainable practices, the absence of comprehensive and integrated data has impeded informed decision-making. The Visualizing Insights on Fertilizer for African Agriculture (VIFAA) program, a collaboration between the International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC), AfricaFertilizer, Development Gateway, and Wallace & Associates, with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, addresses this data gap. By simplifying validated fertilizer data into visual formats through country dashboards, VIFAA provides tools for policymakers and the private sector, fostering evidence-based decision-making. The program has achieved significant success in Ethiopia, Mozambique, and Nigeria. In Ethiopia, a Fertilizer Technical Working Group (FTWG) and a country dashboard were established, aiding the government in strategic procurement decisions. Mozambique, facing data opacity, benefited from a FTWG and a study to improve data collection, addressing inefficiencies in the fertilizer value chain. In Nigeria, VIFAA's five-year engagement resulted in a sustainable private sector co-financing model, enhancing the country's fertilizer sector through data-driven insights. The collaborative approach and key components of success include close collaboration, leveraging existing frameworks, innovation through dashboards, setting up FTWG frameworks, timely implementation, optimal utilization of innovation funds, and sustainability through platform updates. The impact of VIFAA is evident in industry recognition, private sector co-funding, and government involvement in assessments such as the Presidential Fertilizer Initiative. The term "VIFAA," translating to "tool" in Swahili, encapsulates the program's essence as a vital tool for governments, private sector entities, suppliers, and farmers. As Africa experiences growth in fertilizer consumption, VIFAA stands out as a scalable model, showcasing the power of partnership in addressing complex challenges and driving positive change in the fertilizer sector. Encouraging increased stakeholder participation is crucial for the program's scalability and its ability to address the burgeoning data requirements accompanying the growth in fertilizer consumption.
- ItemIFDC Report, Volume 15, No. 3(1990-09) IFDCThis report provides an overview of the role of the private sector in the marketing and distribution of fertilizers in Bangladesh. Historically, the government was responsible for determining the types and quantities of imported fertilizers. However, through the USAID/IFDC project, the private sector has now been actively involved in this process. The increased use of fertilizers is crucial in improving agricultural productivity in Bangladesh, as the available land for crop production is limited. Introducing a free and competitive marketing system has led to record-breaking yields in crop production and significant cost savings for the national economy. Despite the growth in fertilizer use, average consumption in Bangladesh remains relatively low compared to other Asian countries. The involvement of over 50,000 private dealers in fertilizer marketing has increased accessibility and reduced prices for farmers. This report highlights the positive impact of private sector participation in the fertilizer industry and emphasizes the potential for further agricultural development in Bangladesh.
- ItemIFDC Report, Volume 17, No. 2(1992-06) IFDCThis report summarizes the findings and outcomes of an international workshop organized by the International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC) with funding from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The workshop, held in Tampa, Florida, in March 1992, aimed to address the growing environmental challenges faced by the global phosphate fertilizer industry. Delegates and experts from 19 countries participated in the workshop, focusing on environmentally driven technical, economic, regulatory, and political issues affecting the industry. The deliberations at the workshop covered various critical topics, including the required technologies and products for optimal agricultural productivity, the environmental concerns associated with phosphate fertilizer production, the management and technology strategies to address emerging environmental issues, the costs of complying with existing or proposed regulatory scenarios, and the alternatives available for building a more environmentally sustainable phosphate fertilizer industry. Additionally, the workshop aimed to assess how these environmental issues impact farmers' ability to produce an abundant supply of affordable food and fiber in developed and developing economies. Despite differing opinions, the workshop concluded with a consensus on several key points. Firstly, the industry has made progress in responding to environmental pressures, but more work remains. Secondly, there is a need for further research to ensure that environmental regulations are based on sound scientific foundations. Lastly, environmental regulations' economic implications are global, necessitating comprehensive research and a focused approach to address the potential global economic impact. This report provides valuable insights into the environmental challenges the phosphate fertilizer industry faces. It highlights the need for sustainable industrial development and responsible environmental stewardship to ensure agricultural productivity while safeguarding the environment. The findings are a basis for future initiatives and actions to create a more environmentally benign phosphate fertilizer industry.
- ItemIFDC Report, Volume 18, No. 1(1983-03) IFDCThis report summarizes the assistance the International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC) provided to the Government of Egypt in policy reform and dealer training. The report showcases the expertise and professionalism of the IFDC team, which conducted thorough technical, organizational, and systemic analyses of the impact of policy reforms related to fertilizer production, marketing, and usage. The recommendations in the report result from meticulous research, field investigations, and careful consideration of the obtained data. The IFDC team, comprising Ian Gregory, Dr Loren E. Ahlrichs, and Dr S. S. Sidhu, collaborated with Dr Lyle E. Brenneman, a Cooperative Business Consultant, and four Egyptian consultants during their visit to Egypt from January to April 1993. The team's primary objectives were to assess the impact of enacted policy changes on various sectors, such as the farm sector, fertilizer production companies, Principal Bank for Development and Agricultural Credit (PBDAC), and the private sector. Additionally, they aimed to identify further policy changes necessary for fostering an open and competitive market for fertilizers and pesticides. The report details the team's economic analysis, which compared the pre-reform period (1979-1985) with the reform period (1985-1991) using secondary data. It also examines the effects of policy changes on fertilizer distribution in the private and cooperative sectors. The current fertilizer and pesticide marketing system is evaluated based on field visits and production factory assessments conducted in January and February 1993. Furthermore, the report outlines the future development and additional policy changes required to establish an open and competitive market system. The recommendations put forth by the policy team primarily focus on ex-factory pricing principles and promoting greater competition in fertilizer distribution. The Egyptian fertilizer market has undergone privatization since July 1991, allowing the private and cooperative sectors to purchase directly from factories and import fertilizers. The report emphasizes the importance of continued policy reforms to ensure the sustained development of an open and competitive market.
- ItemIFDC Report, Volume 18, No. 4(1983-12) IFDCThis report highlights the recent collaboration between the International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC) and various stakeholders in Albania to lay the groundwork for a national agricultural statistical system. The project, sponsored by the U.S. Agency for International Development, aimed to create an area sampling frame (ASF) that would enable reliable data collection for agricultural decision-making and policy formulation. The ASF design focused on estimating cropland areas, forecasting crop production, and monitoring fertilizer application. The study team conducted surveys, utilized satellite imagery, and employed a computerized system to facilitate data storage, estimation, and analysis. The developed ASF is adaptable and versatile, allowing for future surveys and reporting on various agricultural aspects. Implementing this agricultural statistical system is expected to increase agricultural productivity and sustain Albania's free market economy.
- ItemIFDC Report, Volume 20, No. 4(1995-12) IFDCThis report provides an overview of the IFDC (International Fertilizer Development Center) project to increase Bangladeshi farmers' agricultural productivity and market access. The project addresses the need for improved access to agricultural inputs such as high-yielding seeds, fertilizer, and machinery to boost crop yields and meet the growing food demands of the country's population. The report highlights the successful implementation of the Agro-Based Industry and Technology Development Project (ATDP), which builds upon the achievements of previous initiatives in privatizing fertilizer distribution and improving availability across the country. With the establishment of a private agribusiness sector, the project aims to reduce poverty by creating more productive employment opportunities in agriculture. Considering Bangladesh's population growth rate and the stagnation in food production per capita, the report emphasizes the importance of progress in agricultural production for the nation's future well-being. It underscores the potential impact of the IFDC project in increasing investment in agribusiness and creating competitive markets for agricultural products, benefiting both local agribusinesses and export markets. The report also highlights IFDC's involvement in other global initiatives, such as the Desert Margins Initiative, Soil, Water, and Nutrient Management Initiative, and Alternatives to Slash-and-Burn Initiative. These initiatives address land degradation, promote sustainable agricultural practices, and reduce deforestation in various regions.
- ItemIFDC Report, Volume 25, No. 1(2000-06) IFDCThis publication highlights the efforts of the International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC) in Kosovo to rebuild the agribusiness sector and foster economic development in the aftermath of the conflict. With funding from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), IFDC collaborated with non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and other entities to transform the state-run agricultural system into a competitive market. The publication sheds light on the challenges faced by the Kosovar people and the role played by various stakeholders in revitalizing the agricultural sector. It emphasizes the significance of sustainable agriculture in fueling economic growth, increasing food production, and raising the population's living standards. The material underscores the pivotal role of IFDC in providing technical expertise, promoting trade associations, and facilitating policy reform to support the transition to a market-based agricultural system. Through its initiatives, IFDC aims to create a brighter future for the people of Kosovo by leveraging agriculture as a catalyst for prosperity and peace.
- ItemIFDC Report, Volume 28, No. 1(2003-06) IFDCThis publication highlights the innovative approach of the Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) project, developed by the International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC), to stimulate agricultural development in West Africa. The project aims to disseminate information and knowledge about ISFM among farmer organizations, agricultural input dealers, and policymakers at the village and regional levels. The study focuses on the experiences of Madja Koumboguidja and his wife Gbanyab, two Togolese farmers who have successfully implemented ISFM practices on their 3-hectare farm. The region where the farmers reside receives limited rainfall, and the soil fertility is extremely low, posing significant challenges to crop production. Madja and Gbanyab adopted an innovative farming system that integrates crop, livestock, and agroforestry elements to overcome these obstacles. They gradually intensified agricultural production by combining organic and mineral fertilizers, implementing erosion control measures, and employing crop association, rotation, and diversification techniques. The study illustrates how the adoption of ISFM practices transformed the lives of Madja and his family. With increased agricultural productivity, they could improve their livelihoods, feed their family, purchase agricultural equipment, increase their livestock, and send their five children to school. Their farming system's success was achieved by adapting management strategies tailored to different soil types, field histories, rainfall patterns, crop associations, and available financial resources. The findings of this publication demonstrate the potential of ISFM in overcoming soil fertility limitations and improving agricultural productivity. The experiences of Madja and Gbanyab inspire other farmers and provide valuable insights for policymakers and organizations working in the agricultural sector. The ISFM project, facilitated by IFDC and partner organizations, holds promise for sustainable agricultural development in West Africa and beyond.
- ItemIFDC Report, Volume 32, No. 2(2007-06) IFDCThis report provides an overview of the "From Thousands to Millions, or 1000s+" project initiated by the International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC) in West Africa. The project aims to enhance agricultural productivity and economic growth for one million farm families (approximately ten million people) in the region by implementing the Competitive Agricultural Systems and Enterprises (CASE) approach. The CASE approach focuses on improving soil fertility, facilitating farmers' access to input and output markets, and strengthening agribusiness enterprises. The report highlights the significant increase in crop yields, agricultural revenues, and farm incomes observed in areas where CASE has been implemented, benefiting around 150,000 farmers. The project is set to expand to reach additional countries, including Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, and Togo. It emphasizes the development of action plans for agribusiness clusters and the importance of building trust and linkages among various stakeholders in the agricultural value chain. The report also outlines the projected outputs of the 1000s+ project, including increased agricultural productivity and income growth for rural farm households, expanded environmentally sustainable production, improved food security, enhanced private sector services to farmers, and strengthened institutional capacities. The report acknowledges the challenges in sustaining market linkages and expresses optimism about leveraging opportunities for change and development in West Africa's agricultural sector.
- ItemIFDC Report, Volume 36, No. 1(2011) IFDCThis report highlights the challenge faced by Kyrgyzstan in meeting its domestic demand for edible oil, as only 29 percent of the country's consumption is produced domestically. The rest is imported at higher prices, placing the burden on consumers. Although there is potential for increased sunflower oil production, the country lacks the necessary resources to meet demand. The report discusses the success of the U.S. Agency for International Development's (USAID) Kyrgyz Agro-Input Enterprise Development project, which aimed to expand oil crop acreage and productivity. Through a public-private partnership, the project facilitated planting of high-quality sunflower seeds on 250 hectares of land, resulting in significant yield improvements and economic returns. The report also highlights successful training programs conducted by IFDC in Nigeria, Thailand, and Vietnam and the early progress made by the Kyrgyzstan Agro-Input Enterprise Development Follow-On project. The report also discusses the effectiveness of voucher programs in Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Rwanda in improving fertilizer access and crop yields. It presents IFDC's efforts to combat counterfeit and adulterated agricultural inputs in Africa.