Browsing by Subject "Agricultural sector"
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- ItemCommunal Approach to the Agricultural Market in Benin - Approche Communale pour le Marche Agricole au Benin(2019-02) IFDCThis document discusses the challenges faced by Benin in achieving economic growth despite its agricultural development potential. It highlights the country's high poverty rates, food insecurity, and limited access to income-earning opportunities. The agricultural sector, which forms the backbone of Benin's economy, has the potential to benefit from the growing demand for agricultural products in neighboring Nigeria. However, economic actors in Benin face various challenges in accessing the Nigerian market, including regulatory barriers, lack of information, and inadequate infrastructure. The document introduces the Communal Approach to the Agricultural Market (ACMA) program as a mechanism to strengthen the role of local actors, such as economic actors, communal authorities, and socio-professional organizations, in cross-border trade between Benin and Nigeria. The program aims to address the institutional environment affecting cross-border trade through multi-stakeholder consultations and capacity-building initiatives. It facilitates coordination between agricultural actors, provides market knowledge, and improves access to funding. The ACMA program has achieved significant results, including forming Agribusiness Clusters (ABCs) that coordinate the development of competitive agricultural products for the Nigerian market. The program has facilitated business relationships and sales contracts between the ABCs and Nigerian buyers. Additionally, it has supported the construction of commercial infrastructure, such as storage facilities and marketplaces, to enhance the marketing of agricultural products. The program has also contributed to increased agricultural income for producers and processors. The document concludes with lessons learned from the ACMA program, emphasizing the importance of market orientation, value-added actions throughout the agricultural value chain, networking of actors, and credit warrant financing. These insights highlight the potential for improving agricultural trade and economic growth in Benin by addressing the challenges economic actors face in accessing regional markets.
- ItemFERTILIZER STATISTICS OVERVIEW RWANDA 2017 – 2022(2023)This document presents an overview of fertilizer statistics in Rwanda from 2017 to June 2022. The report analyses fertilizer production, import, origin, NPK import analysis, export, and consumption. The data is derived from official trade records provided by the Rwanda Agriculture and Animal Resources Development Board (RAB) and is validated by the Fertilizer Technical Working Group. Key findings include the absence of primary fertilizer production in Rwanda, notable fertilizer importers, and patterns in fertilizer imports and consumption across different crop seasons. The document also highlights the countries of origin for imported fertilizers and provides insights into NPK blend preferences. The report underscores the significance of fertilizers in Rwanda's agricultural sector and their impact on crop productivity.
- ItemIFDC Report, Volume 13, No. 3(1988-09) IFDCThis report discusses various aspects of agricultural practices and technologies related to vegetable production in the Salinas Valley, California, USA. It covers digital computerized photography for crop production, dry and fluid fertilizer application, modern irrigation technology, drip irrigation for small farmers, chemical application through the pivot system, reduced tillage systems, maximum economic yield research, modern fertilizer handling systems, and hydroponic systems. The report highlights a training program conducted by IFDC, focusing on advances in fertilizer and irrigation technology in the United States, investment analysis and decision-making for fertilizer sector projects, and fertilizer sector development training for graduate students. The program aimed to share and evaluate innovative ideas and concepts gained from observations of new practices in crop production. The report also includes information on IFDC's assessment of Nigeria's fertilizer distribution system and a fertilizer market study in Nigeria.
- ItemIFDC Report, Volume 19, No. 4(1994-12) IFDCThis report provides an update on the work and progress of the International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC) in implementing the Fertilizer Distribution Improvement Project-II (FDI-II) in Bangladesh. The project aimed to establish a market-driven fertilizer distribution system, resulting in efficient and cost-effective distribution. The project's accomplishments include the elimination of fertilizer subsidies and distribution support costs to the government, creating new entrepreneurial opportunities, and increasing food production and security. The report highlights key lessons learned from the project. Firstly, the Bangladeshi government was crucial in implementing policy changes to stimulate the agricultural sector. Strong political will, broad consensus, and firm commitment were necessary for successful implementation. Secondly, the project demonstrated the importance of competitive market forces in driving agricultural sector efficiencies. The reforms in the fertilizer sector created a competitive market, leading to increased fertilizer availability and reduced prices, which stimulated fertilizer use and agricultural production. Thirdly, the report emphasizes the essential role of collaboration between donors, consultants, and the government in achieving project success. The relationship between the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the Ministry of Agriculture, and IFDC was based on trust and confidence, with the Ministry implementing fundamental policy changes recommended by IFDC. Additionally, the timely and systematic flow of information was critical in keeping stakeholders informed about changing market conditions and aiding sound decision-making. The report concludes by stressing the importance of technology transfer, commercial credit, and support for government employees during the transition to a market-oriented economy. Furthermore, it highlights the potential for replicating the successes of the IFDC project in other agricultural sectors and calls for similar initiatives to address food production challenges in sub-Saharan Africa. The proposed program involves utilizing funds to buy fertilizer, auctioning it to private dealers, and reinvesting the proceeds to develop the private sector, enhance agricultural productivity, and tackle regional food security issues.
- ItemIFDC Report, Volume 37, No. 1(2012) IFDCThis report provides an update on the work and progress of the International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC), a public international organization dedicated to increasing and sustaining food security and agricultural productivity in developing countries. The report covers various topics, including implementing the Cocoa for a Better Life UDP Trials in Kenya and developing the agriculture sector in Bangladesh. It highlights IFDC's commitment to Africa and its efforts to support smallholder farmers in breaking free from the poverty cycle. The report also acknowledges the contributions of key individuals and divisions within IFDC. IFDC aims to drive sustainable development and address food security challenges by disseminating effective crop nutrient technology and agribusiness expertise.
- ItemIFDC Report, Volume 37, No. 4(2012) IFDCThis report provides an overview of the work and progress of the International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC) in Africa. The IFDC has adopted a broad approach to empower targeted participants and create centers of excellence, focusing on capacity development and entrepreneurship. The report highlights the concept of empowerment within the Center of Agricultural Systems and Entrepreneurship (CASE) framework, emphasizing the importance of enabling individuals to control their fate and advocating for change within the agricultural sector. The report further explores agribusiness clusters' role and significance in building agricultural value chains. It discusses the need to link farmers with various stakeholders, such as farmer organizations, agro-dealers, and financial institutions, to ensure sustainable and inclusive agricultural development. By strengthening these value chains, smallholder farmers gain access to inputs, markets, and credit, which enhances their business opportunities and independence. Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) is another crucial component discussed in the report. ISFM addresses the issue of soil fertility, a major cause of food insecurity in Africa. By combining mineral fertilizers with locally available organic amendments, ISFM improves soil nutrient levels and promotes sustainable agricultural practices. The report emphasizes the importance of transferring ISFM methods to farmers and highlights IFDC's success in introducing these techniques to African farmers. The report also highlights the significance of public-private partnerships (PPPs) in agricultural development. PPPs bring together public-sector institutions and private-sector organizations to accomplish shared objectives that cannot be achieved individually. The report provides examples of successful PPPs, such as IFDC's partnership with the cassava processing industry, which has created opportunities for smallholder farmers to access reliable markets and sell their produce at pre-established prices. Additionally, the report introduces the 2SCALE project, which focuses on developing competitive agribusiness clusters and value chains in Africa. The project involves private sector engagement to increase agricultural production and improve livelihoods for smallholder producers. By partnering with large-scale private sector companies and expanding to new countries, 2SCALE aims to demonstrate business effectiveness in the African agro-food sector and ensure value chain sustainability. To support these efforts, IFDC is implementing market information systems (MIS) to enhance agricultural stakeholders' access to accurate and up-to-date market data. Mobile applications like the farms' platform enable efficient communication and coordination within agricultural value chains.
- ItemImproving African Food Security(2004-02) Breman, Henk; Debrah, Siegfried KofiFood security remains a pressing issue in Africa, with the agricultural sector experiencing stagnation and limited food production. Sub-Saharan Africa, in particular, faces low land and labor productivity rates, resulting in insufficient cereal yields and declining per capita food production. This paper analyzes the reasons behind Africa's exclusion from the Green Revolution and emphasizes the continent's disadvantaged natural resource base and unfavourable socioeconomic conditions as major contributing factors. The paper highlights the need for agricultural intensification to combat food insecurity and increase productivity. It explores success stories that exemplify the potential for intensification strategies to transform African agriculture. Despite challenges related to agro-ecological conditions and socioeconomic contexts, exceptions such as peri-urban agriculture and market-driven intensification demonstrate the viability of external input usage and the importance of domestic markets. The paper underscores the need to develop market-oriented agriculture, improve resource bases, and promote sustainable practices to enhance food security in Africa.
- ItemMarketing Palm Nuts from Benin to Nigeria -Experiences of the Communal Union of Producers of Ifangni And Comfort Vegetable Oil Ltd. In Nigeria(2019-02)The growing demand from the Nigerian agro-processing industry for palm oil presents a significant opportunity for palm oil producers and processors in Benin. This publication explores how members of the Communal Union of Producers (UCP) of Ifangni in Benin have been marketing palm nuts, which are a byproduct of palm oil extraction, to Nigeria. In particular, palm nut kernel has emerged as an alternative marketing opportunity. Comfort Vegetable Oil Ltd., a Nigerian family business specializing in palm nut, palm oil, and soybean oil refinery, has been sourcing raw materials from Benin to meet the needs of numerous vegetable oil refineries in Ogun and Oyo States in Nigeria. While Comfort Vegetable Oil Ltd. operates a processing plant in Ogun State, Nigeria, the current supply constraints have led to the exploration of more direct connections with Beninese producers to reduce production costs and ensure a sustainable source of raw material supply. To address these challenges and facilitate a business relationship, the Ifangni UCP in Benin and Comfort Vegetable Oil Ltd. in Nigeria conducted a pilot experiment on the marketing of palm nut kernel, facilitated by the Communal Approach to the Agricultural Market (ACMA) program. ACMA uses multi-stakeholder consultations within agricultural business clusters (ABCs) to connect producers, processors, traders, and service providers with buyers in Nigeria, fostering a competitive supply of agricultural products. Through negotiations and practical solutions, this experiment aimed to identify marketing constraints and establish a sustainable supply chain for palm nut kernel to meet the demands of Nigerian agro-processors. The study discusses the negotiation process, the challenges posed by fluctuations in the exchange rate of the Nigerian Naira, and the strategies adopted to create a successful business relationship. The findings shed light on the importance of improving the competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Nigerian agro-processing industry and the potential benefits of direct producer-buyer relationships.
- ItemMitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Irrigated Rice Cultivation through Improved Fertilizer and Water Management(2022) S. M. Mofijul Islam; Yam Kanta Gaihre; Md. Rafiqul Islam; Md. Nayeem Ahmed; Mahmuda Akter; Upendra Singh; Bjoern Ole SanderGreenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture sector play an important role for global warming and climate change. Thus, it is necessary to find out GHG emissions mitigation strategies from rice cultivation. The efficient management of nitrogen fertilizer using urea deep placement (UDP) and the use of the water-saving alternate wetting and drying (AWD) irrigation could mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reduce environmental pollution. However, there is a dearth of studies on the impacts of UDP and the integrated plant nutrient system (IPNS) which combines poultry manure and prilled urea (PU) with different irrigation regimes on GHG emissions, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and rice yields. We conducted field experiments during the dry seasons of 2018, 2019, and 2020 to compare the effects of four fertilizer treatments including control (no N), PU, UDP, and IPNS in combination with two irrigation systems— (AWD and continuous flooding, CF) on GHG emissions, NUE and rice yield. Fertilizer treatments had significant (p < 0.05) interaction effects with irrigation regimes on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. PU reduced CH4 and N2O emissions by 6% and 20% compared to IPNS treatment, respectively under AWD irrigation, but produced similar emissions under CF irrigation. Similarly, UDP reduced cumulative CH4 emissions by 9% and 15% under AWD irrigation, and 9% and 11% under CF condition compared to PU and IPNS treatments, respectively. Across the year and fertilizer treatments, AWD irrigation significantly (p < 0.05) reduced cumulative CH4 emissions and GHG intensity by 28%, and 26%, respectively without significant yield loss compared to CF condition. Although AWD irrigation increased cumulative N2O emissions by 73%, it reduced the total global warming potential by 27% compared to CF irrigation. The CH4 emission factor for AWD was lower (1.67 kg ha− 1 day− 1) compared to CF (2.33 kg ha− 1 day− 1). Across the irrigation regimes, UDP increased rice yield by 21% and N recovery efficiency by 58% compared to PU. These results suggest that both UDP and AWD irrigation might be considered as a carbon-friendly technology.
- ItemReview of Fertilizer Use by Crop and by Product Tanzania(2018-06)The AfricaFertilizer.org (AFO) has been facilitating exchange of information about soil fertility, fertilizers and good agricultural practices (GAP) in Africa with the support of IFDC, IFA, AFAP, FAO, and the Africa Union Commission and its NEPAD Agency since 2009. The first component of the AFO program aims at improving access and availability of essential fertilizer statistics in Africa on production, trade, consumption, production capacities and fertilizer use per crop, with a special emphasis on real consumption (as opposed to apparent consumption) and fertilizer use by crop data (FUBC). The importance of improving access and availability of essential fertilizer statistics in Tanzanian has driven to the undertaking of the consultancy work that has provided best estimates of current (national) fertilizer consumption and FUBC statistics. The overall objective of the work was to update the 2014 - 2016 Fertilizer consumption statistics and report on National consumption and Fertilizer Use by Crop (FUBC) for Tanzania for the periods 2014/15 to 2016/17. This has been the basis of creating a database on fertilizer use that requires putting together available data and collecting missing data from various sources including literature survey and interviews with relevant stakeholders. The consultant, prior to finalizing this report had an opportunity to collect and share information with Inputs Section and Statistics Section staff of the Ministry of Agriculture (MA) and the Monitoring and Analyzing Food and Agricultural Policies (MAFAP) team which was also looking at fertilizer price build up. Furthermore, the consultant visited the Tanzania Fertilizer Company (TFC), the Fertilizer Society of Tanzania - Private Fertilizer Manufacturers, Importers and Exporters), the Tanzania revenue Authority (TRA) and had discussions with the Director of Policy and Planning and the Director of Crop Development. This report provides information on fertilizer data for 2014 – 2016; updates on the agricultural sector; agricultural policies and trade environment; fertilizer trade trends and developments; calculation of fertilizer consumption by crop and type of fertilizer; calculation of Fertilizer Use by Crop (FUBC); reviewed fertilizer recommended application rates; Actual Application Rate (AAR) of fertilizers by farmers; observed gaps during data collection and how to deal with missing data. During the study, the consultant revealed the following: (a) Area under cultivation for all crops was not the same from one year to another (2014 – 2016) as there has been some significant changes leading to different levels of fertilizer demand and use by farmers. (b) Fertilizer demand, availability and utilization in Tanzania is very low when compared to the total demand as recommended by the Department of Research and Development of the Ministry of Agriculture. Fertilizer requirements for 2014 was 3,688,685 Metric Tons, 2015 (4,023,169 Metric Tons) and 2106 (3,688,897 Metric Tons) as compared to the apparent consumption of 301,120 Metric Tons (2014), 249,389 Metric Tons (2015) and 330,880 Metric Tons (2016) respectively for major crops as indicated in Appendix VI. (c) Fertilizer imports reached 417,242 MT (2017) as compared to 371,256 MT (2016) a 12 percent increase. (d) Apparent Consumption of fertilizers has been on increase from 249,389 Metric Tons in 2015 to 349,491 Metric Tons in 2017. This is an increase by 5% from 333,631Metric Tons in 2016. (e) Despite the fact that apparent consumption been on increase, the real consumption of fertilizer by farmers were 288,100 MT (2014), 267,037 MT (2015) and 289,687 MT in 2016. (f) Exported fertilizers have increased by 95% from 44,837MT (2016) to 87,510 MT (2017) 2 | P a g e Otherwise, efforts are required in order to improve agricultural productivity for increased economic growth, reduce rural poverty, improve food security and recognize the crucial role of improved fertilizer use by farmers in additional to other productivity enhancing inputs to meet national targets.
- ItemSmart Fertilization and Water Management – Kenya-Netherlands Aidand-Trade Opportunities(2018-01) Bindraban, Prem S. ; Lawrence Mose; Michiel Hillen; María Ruipérez González; Mauritis Voogt; Johan Leenaars; Kees Langeveld; Nico HeerinkThis report describes the outcome of a feasibility study for demonstrating the development of a trade-and-aid relationship between Kenya and the Netherlands for sustainable agricultural intensification. Such intensification can be achieved by means of knowledge-intensive location- specific fertilizer and water management practices, driven by increased input-output agribusiness, with the ultimate aim to sustainably improve food and nutrition security in Kenya and create local jobs in the country. The outline and support for the study resulted from discussions between the project team and the Ministries of Economic Affairs (the Directorate-General for Agriculture), the Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (the Directorate General for International Cooperation-DGIS) of the Kingdom of the Netherlands The governments of the world have agreed to end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture by 2030 as one of the ambitious Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Several studies show that investment in small-scale sustainable agriculture is an effective and proven way to reduce hunger and poverty in low-income countries, where agriculture may contribute up to 70% of the gross domestic product (GDP). Yet, public investment in agriculture is dismally low, with govemments allocating less than 2% of their central government expenditures to agriculture and 6-8% of their total official development assistance. Apart from public investments, public-private partnerships (PPPs) are considered essential in development cooperation to achieve sustained and widespread impact on poverty reduction. PPPs are partnerships between the government, the private sector, research institutions, and civil society organizations. The Kenya-Netherlands Green Deal (KNGD) PPP team, consisting of actors in agriculture, fertilizer, water management, logistics, and business development, proposes location-specific agronomic interventions to accelerate the agricultural productivity of maire and potato, important food security crops in Kenya. The interventions can be achieved by: (1) activating and gathering the contribution of PPP partners in the Netherlands and Kenya in the design of the interventions: (2) integrating practical experiences from past and current field operations with recent advanced big-data analytical methodologies for spatial extrapolation of the agronomic interventions; (3) generating information about business opportunities for actors along the entire value chain; and (4) creating instruments to develop enabling conditions for widespread adoption of the interventions. The proposed intervention is at the heart of the basic requirements for sustainably increasing agricultural productivity. Its validity has been proven in other parts of the world but needs to be adapted for local production, ecological, and socio-economic conditions. The nature of this intervention and the proposed approach for its implementation are not meant merely to be a one- time effort that ends after a proiect period but to be an integral part of the business and institutional 100% demonstration phase, which is outlined in this document, and an implementation phate my mamstream the demonstrated effects in businesses and institutions These two phases can also be smoothly merged. For decades, point-based agronomic experiments have been carried out to determine the impact of fertilization and other measures on crop response, but this information could not be extrapolated to larger areas because of specific soil and water conditions. This is especially true for Kenya. Current agro-ecological knowledge, combined with advanced IT- and satellite-based big-data analytical methodologies, allows for such specification and extrapolation. In this case, it will generate information about the total amount of specific nutrients (macro and micro) and other inputs required at local and regional scales. Chain actors can use the information to enhance their businesses. For example, farmers can select the most appropriate business solutions. Fertilizer companies can understand the potential market size and the exact formulation of fertilizer products required in their region; they also can explore available local sources of nutrients (recycle material). Logistics companies will be able to design optimal logistical solutions, and agro-dealers can tailor their distribution networks. Governments will be able to better direct their policies by stimulating the use of specific products. With advancements in the analytical methodology, the information may also lead to more accurate estimates of expected harvest volumes to inform buyers and to guide policymakers in their decisions about the amount and timing of food imports, if needed. This study reveals that accelerating maize and potato productivity and nutritional quality is feasible because: (1) the agro-technical opportunities to sustainably boost productivity, particularly smart fertilizers and water management, are large; (2) the Kenyan market has most basic elements in place, but (3) many relevant actors in Kenya run solitary operations to provide farmers with (their) specific products but lack the capacity to assess and develop the market, for which they call upon public sector support: (1) supporting Kenyan knowledge and governmental institutions to generate the required information, (5) which can be created in collaboration with Netherlands knowledge institutions; (6) industry parties in Kenya and beyond are eager to develop the Kenyan market, (7) financial parties are willing to provide services to chain actors under transparent market conditions; and (8) policy regulations could be adapted in support of the interventions informed by multi-stakeholder governing platforms, such as a National Fertilizer Board. The uniqueness of this methodology goes beyond approaches and initiatives that take part of the equation into consideration. We propose to develop a science-supported implementation program that combines advanced agro-technical insights for sustainable intensification with business opportunities for chain actors and the creation of enabling conditions. While this case has been developed specifically for Kenya, the approach is applicable for any other country in sub-Saharan Africa Methodological innovations contained in the proposed demonstration/implementation phase include the following: o Bottom-up agro-technical approach with farm participation and top-down advanced satellite and big-data analyses: o Advanced geo-spatial extrapolation methodologies of soil data points (FAO-endorsed). o Advanced, rapid, and automated (spectroscopic) soil testing. o Satellite imaging and processing for spatial-temporal water use optimization (FAO- endorsed). o Modeling and expert judgement-based analytical methodology for fertilizer recommendations. o Location-specific fertilizer and water management within the context of farm practices. o On-farm and on-station trials for ground-truthing and verification of fertilizer responses. Business cases: o Enhanced business opportunities for agro dealers. o Contracts and agreements between farm producers and buyers o International opportunities for trade in fertilizers and improved seeds o National business opportunities for blended fertilizers o Portfolio of financial services and credit facilities for chain actors Enabling conditions: o Facilitate development of a National Fertilizer Platform (NFP) with PPP actors o NFP to agree on actions to stimulate the development of the novel fertilizer market o Inform value chain actors about volumes of region-specific fertilizers for investment decisions. o Inform about water management practices to increase water use efficiency. o Enhance national capacity for seed production and testing. Outcomes include: • National awareness among actors to jointly unlock the potential of innovative fertilization. Joint creation of enabling conditions. • Value chain actors acting in harmony. • Learning by combined theory and practice. • Optimized use of natural resources, improvement of soil health, and an end to soil degradation through use of organic and inorganic fertilization. •Increased maize and potato production for improved nutritional quality and reduced losses •Increased on-farm food and nutrition security and income. Enhanced international trade in agro-inputs. •Vibrant value chains in maize and potato.
- ItemStructuring of Economic Actors’ Organizations - For a Healthy and Favorable Environment Toward the Appropriate Management of Market Infrastructures(2019-02) IFDCThis publication is the result of the project Communal Approach to the Agricultural Market in Benin (ACMA), financed by the Embassy of the Netherlands and implemented by a consortium of five institutions - International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC - Lead Partner), the Royal Tropical Institute (KIT), CARE International, Sahel Capital Partners Advisory Ltd, and Benin Consulting Group International (BeCG). It was developed (from November 2013 to 31 December 2017) in three Nigerian border departments with high agricultural potential - Oueme, Plateau, and Zou through seven value chains (VC) initially: palm oil, maize, gari, chili, and fish, then peanuts and soya. The overall objective of the ACMA program is “the improvement of food security and the increase of agricultural incomes of the direct actors.”