Mitigating N2O and NO Emissions from Direct-Seeded Rice with Nitrification Inhibitor and Urea Deep Placement

Soil-emitted nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) in crop production are harmful nitrogen (N) emissions that may contribute both directly and indirectly to global warming. Application of nitrification inhibitors, such as dicyandiamide (DCD), and urea deep placement (UDP), are considered effective approaches to reduce these emissions. This study investigated the effects of DCD and UDP, compared to urea and potassium nitrate, on emissions, nitrogen use efficiency and grain yields under direct-seeded rice. High-frequency measurements of N2O and NO emissions were conducted using the automated closed chamber method throughout the crop-growing season and during the ratoon crop. Both UDP and DCD were effective in reducing N2O emissions by 95% and 73%, respectively. The highest emission factor (1.53% of applied N) was observed in urea, while the lowest was in UDP (0.08%). Emission peaks were mainly associated with fertilization events and appeared within one to two weeks of fertilization. Those emission peaks contributed to 65%±98% of the total seasonal emissions. Residual effects of fertilizer treatments on the N2O emissions from the ratoon crop were not significant; however, the urea treatment contributed 2%, whereas UDP contributed to 44% of the total annual emissions. On the other hand, cumulative NO emissions were not significant in either the rice or ratoon crops. UDP and DCD increased grain yields by 16%±19% and N recovery efficiency by 30%±40% over urea. The results suggested that the use of DCD and UDP could mitigate N2O emissions and increase grain yields and nitrogen use efficiency under direct-seeded rice condition.
Nitric oxide, Nitrification inhibitors, Nitrogen-use efficiency, Deep placement