Integrated Plant Nutrient Systems Improve Rice Yields without Affecting Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Lowland Rice Cultivation

Abstract
Efficient management of fertilizers and irrigation could mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increase crop yields. Field experiments were conducted to determine the effects of an integrated plant nutrient system (IPNS) and water regime—alternate wetting and drying (AWD) and continuous flooding (CF)—on GHG emissions and rice yield. Fertilizer treatments included control (no N), prilled urea (PU), urea deep placement (UDP), and IPNS (50% N from poultry litter and 50% N from PU). Gas sampling and analysis were performed using a closed-chamber technique and gas chromatography. IPNS produced significantly (p < 0.05) higher seasonal total methane (CH4 ) emissions (9–15%) compared to the UDP treatment, but the emissions with IPNS were similar to those of PU. IPNS had an interaction effect with the water regime on nitrogen oxide (N2O) emissions. IPNS produced more emissions than PU under AWD, but their emissions were similar under CF irrigation. IPNS produced a significantly higher total global warming potential (GWP) than UDP but a GWP similar to the PU treatment in both Aus (pre-monsoon) and Aman (wet) seasons. AWD irrigation reduced the total GWP by 8% over CF without yield reductions. IPNS significantly increased rice yields compared to broadcast PU but yields were similar to those of UDP. These findings suggest that both IPNS and UDP could be effective in increasing crop yields without increasing GHG emissions.
Description
Keywords
Greenhouse gases, Deep placement, Methane, Nitrous oxide
Citation
Islam, S.M.M.; Gaihre, Y.K.; Islam, M.R.; Khatun, A.; Islam, A. Integrated Plant Nutrient Systems Improve Rice Yields without Affecting Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Lowland Rice Cultivation. Sustainability 2022, 14, 11338. https://doi.org/10.3390/ su141811338
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