- ItemComparison of Yield Response and Nutrient Use Efficiency between Urea Deep Placement Technology and Farmers' Practice of Surface Broadcasting Urea on Transplanted Lowland Rice in Myanmar(2018) M. Aung; Z.Y. Myint; S. Thura; G. Hunter; Upendra Singh; Joaquin SanabriaUrea deep placement (UDP) adaptation trials in randomized complete block design with four treatments and three replications were conducted in two wet seasons (2014 and 2015) and two dry seasons (2105 and 2016) at selected sites in the Delta Region of Myanmar to study yield comparison and nutrient use efficiency between UDP and surface broadcasting urea on transplanted lowland rice. The four treatments were: (1) control (0 N), (2) farmers' practice of urea application with farmers' rate (FP). (3) urea broadcasting (UB) with the same rate as UDP, and (4) UDP. A Generalized Linear Mixed Model was used to analyze variances among treatments, locations, and interaction of location by treatment for each year/season. Yield superiority of UDP over other treatments and nutrient use efficiency (NUE) for each urea applied treatment were calculated. Significant differences at Poon) were observed among treatments and locations in every year/season. Significant differences of interaction of treatments by locations at Pons) were found in wet season trials only. UDP gave the highest yield at all times. It was significantly higher than FP treatment and often higher than UB treatment. Yield superiority of UDP over UB and FP was 16-18% in the wet season and 24-28% in the dry season. Nutrient use efficiency with UDP was double the NUE with other N-applied treatments. UDP produced 30 kg of rice grain for every kg of N applied while other treatments produced 14-17 kg of rice grain per kg of N applied. UDP is therefore the more effective technology to apply N fertilizer on transplanted lowland rice, and dry season results indicated that yield with UDP could be expected more with best management practices under favorable water conditions and proper water management.
- ItemThe Role of Mineral Fertilizers in Climate-Resilient Agriculture: Focus on Myanmar(2018) Bindraban, Prem S.; Christian O. Dimkpa; Upendra Singh; Deborah HellumsThe use of mineral fertilizers has permitted at least 50% of global food production. However, use of fertilizers could have negative environmental consequences contributing to climate change. Climate change is thought to be partly responsible for increases in abiotic and biotic perturbations that negatively impact crop production. Impacts of climate change, such as an increase in incidences of flooding. drought, salinity, and crop disease, are noted for Myanmar. However, appropriate use of existing nitrogen (N) fertilizers, development of new N fertilizers with improved uptake efficiency, and the balancing of fertilizer composition to include secondary and micronutrients can mitigate both the contribution of fertilizer to climate change and the impact of climate change in agriculture. This paper addresses the role of fertilizers in a changing climate where drought, salinity, pests, and incidences of diseases are heightened. Strategies to enhance fertilizer ase efficiency toward engendering a climate-resilient production system are discussed for rice, the predominant crop in Myanmar.
- ItemRole of Yield Potential and Yield-Gap Analyses on Resource-Use Efficiency Improvement(2018) Upendra Singh; M. Aung; Job FugiceA systems approach is used to show the effect of genotypic, environmental, and management factors on the potential yield of rice and maize and the role yield potential and yield-gap analyses play in fertilizer recommendations. Examples from Myanmar are presented for determining yield potential, conducting yield-gap analyses, and identifying appropriate management strategies taking into consideration climatic, soil, and management inputs. CERES-Rice and CERES-Maize models were used to simulate yield potential and N response using site-specific weather and soil data from 18 locations in Myanmar. Planting dates typical for the wet and dry seasons were used for each of the locations. To capture the effect of weather variations, 18 weather years (1997-2015) for each location were used in the simulation study. The wet season rainfed potential production yield, which was the same as the potential production yield, varied from 6.5-7.3 tons per hectare (tha) in the Delta Region to 9.4-10.3 t/ha in the Central Dry Zone and Shan State for high-yielding hybrid rice. Similar differences for maize were also observed with the wet season rainfed maize potential production yield of 4.0-4.9 t/ha in the Delta Region and 6.8-7.2 t/ha in the Central Dry Zone and Shan State for the improved maize variety. The potential production yield for irrigated dry season rice was an average of 11.1 tha for the 18 locations. The irrigated maize yield potential for the dry season ranged from 6.9-7.6 tha in the Delta Region to 7.0-8.6 t/ha in the Central Dry Zone and Shan State. The lower yields in the Delta Region compared to others, particularly during the wet season, were attributed to lower solar radiation. Nitrogen (N) response varied with season, yield potential, and indigenous N supply. Due to these differences, optimum N rates varied from 40 to 120 kilograms (kg) N per ha for rice during the wet season. The optimum agronomic N rates during the dry season were much higher at 120-180 kg N/ha for irrigated hybrid rice. The effects of varieties, indigenous N supply, and method of N application on N recommendations were also simulated.
- ItemFertilizer Quality Assessment in the Myanmar Dry Zone(2018) Joaquin SanabriaThe Dry Zone Agro-Input and Farm Services project, which is funded by the Livelihoods and Food Security Trust Fund (LIFT) consortium and implemented by IFDC, carried out a fertilizer quality assessment in the Dry Zone of Myanmar, The four fertilizers of highest commercialization in Myanmar's Dry Zone-NPK 15:15:15, NPK 10:10:5, NPK 15:7:8, and NPK 16:16:8 presented out-of-compliance shortages - (OOCS) with frequencies of 9%, 19%, and 23% of the samples for total N, P₂Os, and KO, respectively. The OOCS severities relative to the fertilizer bag label specification were-1.5%, -4.7%, and -3.2% for total N. P₂Os, and K2O, respectively. The rest of the fertilizers, of lower commercialization, presented OOCS with frequencies ranging between 11% and 15% and OOCS severities ranging between 2.7% and 4.1%. Based on the relatively low OOCS severities of the macronutrients in fertilizers of high and low commercialization, the nutrient content problems in the Dry Zone are not as dramatic as reported anecdotally, but they still require attention. With no evidence of adulteration found and very mild granule degradation, nutrient shortages likely originate in the manufacture of the imported products. Port inspections should be more rigorous. Granule integrity, moisture content, and other physical properties of fertilizers were found to be good, with the exception of caking found in 12% of the samples. Storage facilities are hot and humid, but the good quality of the impermeable bags preserves the fertilizers from moisture absorption and granule degradation. The caking can be explained by bags stacked too high and the absent use of pallets. Fourteen percent of the 50-kg bags weighed presented weight shortages of more than 0.5 kg. Fertilizer quality assessments such as this should be carried out in all Myanmar agricultural areas, including formal and informal fertilizer markets. Then, the findings of the studies should be used as a foundation for the development of a Myanmar Fertilizer Quality Regulatory Framework, which will protect farmers against fertilizers of substandard quality.
- ItemThe Role of Agribusiness in Advisory and Marketing Services in Mynmar(2018) Z.M. WhinThe Fertilizer Sector Improvement (FSI) project has provided training on business management and agricultural-related products and technologies to agro-input retailers in the project regions (Ayeyarwaddy, Bago, and Yangon) and in Southern Shan State since March 2016. As of August 2017, the project trained 205 agro-input retailers. The training was developed to provide retailers with a broad understanding of small business management and subject-specific knowledge in their business areas. As the interface with farmers, dealers have the potential to provide technical advice to farmers on their products for sale and the products' use. This helps farmers choose the right quantity and the right quality products for their farms. To determine the impact of such training programs on the businesses of the agro-input retailers, FSI conducted a sample survey in the project regions and in Southern Shan. The result indicated that no retailers understood the costs analysis in the project regions before training, and only 18.5% understood it before training in Southern Shan. After training, 6.7-50% of trained retailers in the project regions enhanced their recordkeeping, and 7.4% in Southern Shan transformed from their traditional bookkeeping. The market share increased, on average, by 13.64 villages and 170.13 farmers after training in the project regions and 2.22 villages and 92.96 farmers in Southern Shan. The trained retailers are now able to calculate their net profit accurately. From 93.3% to 100% of trainees now keep inventory records in the project regions. In Shan, 92.6% keep good inventory records. About 40-64.3% in the project regions and 66.7% in Shan did not know Syngenta's "five golden rules" or systematically wear personal protective equipment (PPE) before training. Those sampled were divided into five categories based on how many farmers they shared information with: 1-10 farmers. 11-20, 21-30, 31-40, and 41-50. About 35.7-50% of trained dealers in the project regions and 33.3% in Shan shared the five golden rules with 41-50 farmers after training.