Floodwater ammonium, nitrogen use efficiency and rice yields with fertilizer deep placement and alternate wetting and drying under triple rice cropping systems

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Azmul Huda
Yam Kanta Gaihre
M. Rafiqul Islam
Upendra Singh
Md. R. Islam
Joaquin Sanabria
M. Abdus Satter
Hasina Afroz
Alee Halder
M. Jahiruddin
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Fertilizer management should consider optimum time, rates and methods of application to increase use efficiency and crop yield. We conducted field experiments at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh, to investigate the effects of deep placement of urea briquettes (UB) and NPK briquettes (NPK) compared to broadcast prilled urea (PU) at different N rates on dynamics of floodwater NH4 ?-N, ammonia (NH3) volatilization, rice yield and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) during four consecutive rice-growing seasons in 2012–2013. The floodwater NH4 ?-N and NH3 volatilization in broadcast PU increased with N rates, while in deep-placed treatments irrespective of N rates it was similar to the control. Across seasons and water regime, UB or NPK significantly (P\0.05) increased grain yield and nitrogen recovery compared to broadcast PU. During the Boro season (across water regime), UB78 and NPK78 increased grain yield by 40 and 29 %, respectively, compared to broadcast PU78, while N recovery increased from 35 % of PU to 63–67 % in deep placement. Deep placement of UB52 or NPK52 during Aus–Aman and UB78 or NPK78 during Boro can be one of the best N management options for increasing NUE and crop yield. Alternate wetting and drying irrigation, though, had no significant effect on grain yield or on NUE. Its adoption could save irrigation water without any yield reduction during the Boro season. However, more studies across different soils, climate and management practices are needed for further understanding the interactive effects of fertilizer and water management on yield, NUE and soil fertility.
Nitrogen-use efficiency, Deep placement, Rice
Huda, A., Y.K. Gaihre, M.R. Islam, U. Singh, M.R. Islam, J. Samaria, M.A. Satter, H. Afroz, A. Halder, and M. Jahiruddin. 2016. Floodwater Ammonium, Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Rice Yields with Fertilizer Deep Placement and Alternate Wetting and Drying Under Triple Rice Cropping Systems. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst., 104(1):53-66.