Acid Fertilizer Solution Production

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Kachelman, Donald L.
Cole, Carl A. Jr.
Waters, Joe A.
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The production and utilization of acid fertilizer solutions have increased interest in recent years. Typically characterized by a pH less than 2.5, these solutions are commonly derived from urea, urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) solution, wet-process phosphoric acid, potassium chloride, and sulfuric acid. This material explores the solubility systems of various acid fertilizers, including urea-phosphoric acid, ammonium nitrate-phosphoric acid, UAN solution-phosphoric acid, ammonium sulfate-phosphoric acid, urea-sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid-potassium chloride, and sulfuric acid-potassium chloride. These acid solutions' production methods, equipment, handling, storage, and application, are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of acid solutions, such as higher analysis grades, increased micronutrient solubility, improved compatibility with hard water, and enhanced phosphorus availability, are explored. The corrosive nature of acid solutions and their impact on steel materials is also addressed. Furthermore, the potential benefits of acid-suspension fertilizers, which allow for higher analyses and novel grade combinations, are highlighted. The paper concludes with a summary of acid solutions' physical, chemical, and agronomic advantages and their potential implications for fertilizer production and application.
Suspensions, Solutions, Production