Insecticide Residues in Soil and Water in Coastal Areas of Vegetable Production in Togo
Some common organochlorine, organophosphorus and pyrethroid insecticides were analysed in agricultural soil samples (n=35) and surface water and groundwater samples (n=25) collected from coastal areas of vegetable production in Togo. Analytical methods included solvent extraction of the insecticide residues and their subsequent quantification using GCECD. δ-HCH, heptachlor epoxide, 4,4-DDE, endosulphan (α, β and sulphate), lambda-cyalothrin and chlorpyrifos were found in the soil samples with concentrations that varied from non-detectable (ND) to 26.93 μg kg−1 dry weight. For water samples, heptachlor epoxide, 2,4-DDD, 4,4-DDD, 4,4-DDE and endosulphan (α, β, and sulphate) were found at contamination levels that varied from ND to 0.116 μg L−1 . The concentration of insecticide residues detected in the water samples was below the limits set by the World Health Organization (WHO) and also by the European Union (EU), with the exception of the concentration of endosulphan sulphate at the Aného site, which was 0.116 μg L−1 .
Insecticides, Soil, Water