The Politics and Economics of GM Food Production in China, India and Kenya

Two decades after the first genetically modified (GM) crops were commercially grown, their cultivation remains limited to a few crops in a few countries, with India, China, and Kenya still not permitting major GM food crops. Recent political developments suggest a shift in this stance, with China, India, and Kenya showing potential for GM crop adoption. This research explores the economic, political, and social factors that have influenced biotechnology policies in these countries. Despite scientific consensus on the safety and societal benefits of GM crops, consumer support for GM policies remains limited due to concerns about food safety. Industry groups that stand to benefit from GM crop adoption have been largely passive or divided. Successful lobbying efforts depend on the alignment of interest group goals with government objectives. The ongoing debate around the approval of GM maize in these countries highlights how policies are shaped by economic interest groups, political lobbying, and government objectives, with differing prospects for GM crop adoption in China, India, and Kenya.
Food production, Food safety