Browsing by Author "A. Naseem"
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- ItemPrivate Agricultural R&D: Do the Poor Benefit?(2021) Anderson, J.R.; R. Birner; Latha Nagarajan; A. Naseem; Carl E. PrayPrivate agricultural research and development can foster the growth of agricultural productivity in the diverse farming systems of the developing world comparable to the public sector. We examine the extent to which technologies developed by private entities reach smallholder and resource-poor farmers, and the impact they have on poverty reduction. We critically review cases of successfully deployed improved agricultural technologies delivered by the private sector in both large and small developing countries for instructive lessons for policy makers around the world.
- ItemSeed Policy Reforms in Zambia(2020-03-09) Latha Nagarajan; A. Naseem; Carl E. PrayThis study highlights the critical role of technological change in raising agricultural productivity to enhance farm incomes, alleviate rural poverty, and sustain economic growth. It emphasizes the underutilization of technology, particularly improved varieties (IVs), in many countries, with a specific focus on sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The study traces historical impediments to the adoption of new agricultural varieties in SSA, including slow varietal releases, government controls, and policy constraints. Furthermore, it elucidates the pivotal policy shifts in Zambia since the mid-1990s, which transitioned the nation from a stagnant public seed industry to a thriving private sector-driven seed market. These reforms, influenced by diverse economic interest groups and research studies, have significantly improved the formal seed system in Zambia. Key metrics demonstrate the competitive maize seed sector, increased variety registrations, maize seed exports, and notable maize yield growth, positioning Zambia as a leader in maize yields within Africa. This transformation underscores the vital role of policy reform and private sector engagement in catalyzing agricultural productivity and economic development in SSA.
- ItemThe Role of Maize Varietal Development on Yields in Kenya(2018) A. Naseem; Latha Nagarajan; Carl E. PraySince the start of seed and other market reforms in the 1990s, the annual number of improved varietal releases for maize in Kenya has increased substantially. Reforms have resulted in not only private firms entering the market and releasing improved varieties, but also an increase in varietal releases by the public sector. This paper reviews some of the key policy reforms related to maize in Kenya, their impacts on varietal development and yields.We present a yield model to relate national maize yields with a number of exogenous factors, that have policy oriented effects associated with significant impact on yields. We use a number of policy variables such as public R&D, the number of Plant Breeder’s Rights issued, and the years since private varieties have been introduced as instrument variables that influence new varietal releases directly, and yields indirectly. We find that the number of improved maize varieties released and the share of area under improved varieties have no impact on maize yields. We argue that this is because farmers continue to use older improved varieties, and that newer improved varieties may not have the assumed yield advantage and/or are not as widely adopted to have the desired yield impact.